HARRY’S COSMETICOLOGY , 9th Edition 3 Volume Set, 2015

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Editor-In-Chief: Meyer R. Rosen
Chemical Publishing
Book - Hardcover
Pub Date: Sept 2015
2600 pages

 

This book is has been designed for use as a textbook for cosmetic chemistry at universitiesand for professional use within cosmetic and personal care product companies of all sizes.

Part 1 Marketing
Part 2 Regulatory Requirements,Intellectual Property, Achieving Global Market Success
Part 3 The Substrates
Part 4 Ingredients
Part 5 Anti-Aging
Part 6 Formulating
Part 7 Sensory Characterization
Part 8 Delivery Systems
Part 9 Nutracosmetics
Part 10 Nanocosmetics
Part 11 Testing
Part 12 Sustainability
Part 13 Cosmetic Manufacturing
Part 14 Packaging

Approx 2500 Pages
3  Volumes Set
Hardcover

 

 

 

Features
Cover Page
Copyright Page
About the Editor-in-Chief
Acknowledgements
Preface

Part 1. In The Beginning

Part 1.1

Marketing Concepts to Empower Technical People

Darrin C. Duber-Smith, MS, MBA Senior Lecturer Metropolitan State University Denver
Table of Contents

1.1.1 The Magic and Mythology of Marketing
1.1.2 The Marketing Concept
1.1.3 Assessing the Marketing Environment
1.1.4 The Four P's
1.1.5 Development, Prototypes, Testing, and Commercialization
1.1.6 The Truth About Innovation
1.1.7 The Missing Links

Part 1.2

Creating the Right Fragrance for Your Personal Care Product

Jill B. Costa, Ph.D.
Bell Flavors and Fragrances
500 Academy Drive
Northbrook, IL 60062

Table of Contents

1.2.1 The Fragrance House
1.2.2 Fragrance Materials
1.2.3 What is a Fragrance Composition?

1.2.4 Creation / Construction of Fragrances

a. Top, Middle, and Base Notes
b. Fragrance Characters

1.2.5 Interaction of Fragrance Materials with Product Bases

a. Volatility / Boiling Point
b. Hydrophobicity / Hydrophilicity (Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient, log KOW)
c. Odor Detection Thresholds

1.2.6 Evaluation of Fragrances

a. Product-Use Cycle
b. Fragrance Complexity

1.2.7 Limitations of Fragrances

1.2.8 Cost Structure of Fragrances

a. Carriers
b. Concentration-Cost Considerations for Fragrances

1.2.9 Troubleshooting Fragrances

a. Color Changes
b. Physical Product Stability
c. Odor

1.2.10 Fragrance Types Defined

a. Traditional Fragrances
b. EU Allergen Label Free or Allergen Free
c. Water-Soluble Fragrances
d. Water-Dispersible Fragrances
e. INCI Blends
1. Natural INCI Blends
2. Allergen-Label-Free INCI Blend
3. Traditional INCI Blend
4. "Unscented" INCI Blend
f. Natural Fragrances
1. Traditional Natural Blends
2. Essential Oil Natural Blends
g. GRAS Fragrances (Generally Recognized as Safe)


Conclusion
References

Part 1.3

Fragrance Packaging Design:
A Multi-Sensory Experience from Concept to Consumer

Renee Bukowski
Senior Product Development Manager
Tru Fragrance and Beauty
1250 Broadway, Suite 1901
New York, NY 10001

Table of Contents

1.3.1 Integrated Process: The Brief
1.3.2 Smell Through Hearing: Consumer Testing
1.3.3 Smell Through Seeing: Fragrance Needs Color
1.3.4 Smell Through Touching: How Will the Consumer Feel?
1.3.5 Smell Through Smelling: Tell a Story, Paint a Picture

Conclusion
References

Part 1.4

Understanding the Value of Molecular Cell Biology and Gene Analysis for the Next Generation of Cosmetic Products

Howard Epstein Ph.D.,
EMD Chemicals, Philadelphia PA

Table of Contents

1.4.1 Introduction
1.4.2 Principles of Molecular Biology
1.4.3 Proteomics, genomics and epigenetics
1.4.4 Application for Skin Care
1.4.5 (Future perspectives) Conclusion

References
Glossary

Part 2 Regulatory

Part 2.1
Regulatory Requirements, Intellectual Property and Achieving Global Market Success for Cosmetic Products

Co-Editors' Introduction

Ruud Overbeek and Meyer R. Rosen

Part 2.2

An Overview of the Changing Regulatory Landscape in the U.S and the E.U. and how to Deal with them...

Dr. Matteo Zanotti Russo
University of Pisa
Angel Consulting SAS Milano

Table of Contents

2.2.1 The challenge of "changing standards"

2.2.2 Regulatory Requirements for Cosmetics in the United States


2.2.3 Guide to Cosmetic Development and Safety Evaluations


2.2.4 Regulatory Requirements for Cosmetics in the European Union

2.2.5 PIF and safety assessment of European cosmetics


2.2.6 Safety profile of substances: source of information

2.2.7 The safety assessment from raw material to finished product



2.2.8 The Notification in the CPNP

2.2.9 Market Surveillance, activity of EU Authorities (Articles 22-23), RAPEX


2.2.10 Practical features: how to move towards compliance with EU regulations



Part 2.3.1

Achieving Global Market Access - focus on Russia

Ramzia Lefebvre

Technical Manager for Russia and Customs Union Certification
Intertek France
Government & Trade Services

Table of Contents

2.3.1.1 Introduction

2.3.1.2 What is the customs union and what is its aim?

2.3.1.3 What were the old requirements and procedures of product
Conformity assessment and how have they progressed to date?

1. Prior to July 1, 2012
2. Since July 1, 2012

2.3.1.4 Overview of the new customs union technical regulation "about safety of perfumery and cosmetic products"

2.3.1.5 How different are the new rules from European requirements?

2.3.1.6 Do the new rules simplify access to the combined Russian and cu market? How do new rules affect exports of cosmetics to Russia?
2.3.1.7 business climate in Russia and reformsRussia joined WTO

References

Part 2.3.2

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA): Cosmetics and Perfumery Products: Market Access and Regulations

Ms. Aurlie Bafoil
Cosmetic Regulatory Affairs Senior Analyst
Intertek Government and Trade Services

Table of Contents

2.3.2.1 Regulatory Framework

2.3.2.2 Definition and Scope of Application

2.3.3.3 Labeling

2.3.2.4 Market Access

References

Part 2.3.3

Achieving Global Market Access - focus on China

Mr. Zhongrui Li (Mr. Ray Li),
Toxicological Risk Assessor,

Table of Contents

2.3.3.1 Category of cosmetics in China: special use and non-special use cosmetic
2.3.3.2 Oral products requirements
2.3.3.3 Document and testing requirements during product registration
2.3.3.4 Animal testing requirements in China
2.3.3.5 Safety assessment for ingredients and finish products
2.3.3.6 Comparison of EU and China regulation requirements
2.3.3.7 Existing and new cosmetic ingredients in China

Part 2.3.4

Nanomaterials in Cosmetics: Regulatory and Safety Considerations

Jeffrey W. Card and Tomas Jonaitis


Table of Contents

2.3.4.1 Regulation of Cosmetics Containing Nanomaterials

2.3.4.2 Safety Assessment Considerations for Nanomaterials

Conclusion
References

Part 2.4

Intellectual Property (IP) Issues: Patents and Trade Secrets

Charles Brumlik, J.D., Ph.D.

Table of Contents

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.2 Typical IP Timing in Cosmetics and Personal Care

2.4.3 Procuring IP Rights

2.4.4 General Criteria of Patentability

2.4.5 Patent Application Timeline

2.4.6 Patent Organizations Across the World

a. National Patent Systems

2.4.7 Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) The main route for obtaining patents international

2.4.8 Trade Secret

2.4.9 Trademarks & Service Marks



2.4.10 Enforcing IP Rights & Reducing IP Risk

a. Freedom to Operate
b. IP Information from Packaging
c. IP Issues While Partnering with Third Parties
d. IP Litigation & Patent Infringement

2.4.11 Recent and Hot IP Issues

a. Asian Natural Herbal Ingredients

2.4.12 Mining IP Informationfor Search, Analytics, Competitive Intelligence

Abbreviations
References


Part 3 The Substrates

Part 3.1.1

The Skin: Structure, Biochemistry, and Function

Editor of The Skin, Structure, Biochemistry, and Function:

Bozena "Bo" B. Michniak-Kohn, Ph.D., M.R.Pharm.S.
Professorof Pharmaceutics
Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy

Director & Founder
Center for Dermal Research (CDR)
NJ Center for Biomaterials,Life Sciences Building
RutgersThe State University of New Jersey
145, Bevier Road,
Piscataway, NJ 08854.
www.michniaklab.org

Contributors:

1. Amy S. Pappert, M.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology
UMDNJRobert Wood Johnson Medical School
1 World's Fair Drive, Suite 2400Somerset, NJ 08873

2. Philip Wertz, Ph.D.
Professor Department of Oral Pathology, Radiology, and Medicine
N450 DSB, Dows Institute
University of Iowa
Iowa City IA 52242

3. Nripen Sharma, Ph.D.
Clinical Scientist/Project Manager/Technical Support
Salvona Technologies LLC
65 Stults Rd., Dayton, NJ 08810

4. Anna Langerveld, Ph.D.
President and CEO
Genemarkers
4717 Campus Drive, Suite 1800
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

5. Ada Polla
Alchimie Forever, The Polla Beauty Group
1010 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 201
Washington, DC 20007
Online: www.alchimie-forever.com

6. Barbara Polla, M.D.
Medical Doctor
Alchimie Forever, The Polla Beauty Group
1010 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 201
Washington, DC 20007

7. Anne Pouillot, MS
Director of Science of Alchimie Forever
Alchimie Forever, The Polla Beauty Group
1010 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 201
Washington, DC 20007

8. Karen E. Burke, M.D., Ph.D.
Dermatologist
429 East 52nd Street
New York, New York 10022

9. Gopi Menon, Ph.D.
Senior Science Fellow
Ashland Specialty Ingredients
1361 Alps Road
Wayne, NJ

10. Nava Dayan Ph.D.
President
Dr. Nava Dayan LLC

Table of Contents

Part 3.1 Substrate:

The Skin:
Structure, Biochemistry and Function

3.1.1 Skin Morphology

3.1.2 Epidermis and the Keratinizing System

3.1.3 Terminal Differentiation
3.1.4 Pigmentary System of the Skin
3.1.5 Langerhans Cells and Dendritic Cells

3.1.6 Dermis

3.1.7 Appendageal Structures

3.1.8 Hair
3.1.9 Nails

3.1.10 Barrier Function and Permeability

3.1.11 Immunological Function
3.1.12 Cytokines
3.1.13 Enzymes
3.1.14 Ultraviolet Radiation-induced Photo-damage and Skin Cancer

3.1.15 Gene expression in Skin Care

Glossary
References


Part 3.2.1

Classification Scale for Skin Complexions Around the World

Eva Patel
Skin Rx Inc.
Founder & CEO

Table of Contents:

3.2.2 Why we need an updated Skin Classification Scale
3.2.3 The methodology in which the study was conducted:
3.2.4 Summary, Analysis
3.2.5 Where Methodology Meets Results

Part 3.2.2

Dermatologic Disorders in Skin of Color

Aanand N. Geria, MD

Table of Contents:

3.2.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2.2 Pharmacology

3.2.2.3 Indications

3.2.2.4 Adverse Effects

References

Part 3.2.3

Asian Ethnic Skin: Specialty Corrective Cosmeceuticals for Asian Ethnic Skin Care

Eva Patel
Skin Rx Inc.
Founder & CEO

Gurpreet (Gogi) Sangha
G.S. Cosmeceutical USA Inc.
Founder & CEO

Table of Contents

3.2.3.1 Defining the Asian Ethnic Market
3.2.3.2 Differences Between Content Levels of Melanin in the Skin
3.2.3.3 Common Skin Conditions for Ethnic Skin and Treatment Methods3.2.3.4 Tips to Achieve Healthy, Beautiful Skin

Part 3.2.4

Compromised Skin in the Elderly

Authors:
R. Randall Wickett, Ph.D., Martha Tate, Ph.D.


Martha Tate, Ph.D.
Research and Engineering
Kimberly-Clark Corporation
1400 Holcomb Bridge Road
Roswell, GA 30076


Table of Contents

3.2.4.1 Structure of the Skin
3.2.4.2 Skin Aging: Changes in the Epidermis and Stratum Corneum
3.2.4.3 Aging and the Dermis
3.2.4.4 The Dermatoglyphic Pattern of the Skin
3.2.4.5 Aging and Mechanical Properties of Skin
3.2.4.6 Telangiectasia
3.2.4.7 Photo-Aging Mechanisms
3.2.4.8 Photo-Aging and Appearance
3.2.4.9 Compromised Elderly Skin Treatments



Conclusions
References

Part 3.3.0

The Hair

Editors Overview

Editor: Manuel Gamez-Garcia
Ashland Specialty Ingredients

Part 3.3.1

An Overview of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Hair
and their relation to Cosmetic Needs, Performance and Properties

Manuel Gamez-Garcia
Ashland Specialty Ingredients

Table of Contents

3.3.1.1 Introduction

3.3.1.2 Chemical composition of hair

3.3.1.3 Main types of hair cells

3.3.1.4 Cortical cells and their role in hair properties


3.3.1.4 Different types of cortical cells and hair shape

3.3.1.5 Cuticle cells and their role in hair properties



3.3.1.7 Melanin pigments in hair

3.3.1.8 Hair function

3.3.1.9 The follicle



References

Part 3.3.2

An Overview of Hair Follicle Anatomy and Biology

Paul Mouser Ph.D.
Ashland, Inc., Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Bridgewater, NJ, United States

Table of Contents:

3.3.2.1 Hair Follicle Structure
3.3.2.2 Hair Follicle Cycling
3.3.2.3 Aging of the Hair Follicle

Conclusion
References
Glossary

Part 3.3.3

Hair Aging: Fundamentals, Protection and Repair

Padmaja Prem, Ph.D
Vice President, Research & Development
Combe Incorporated, 1101 Westchester Avenue
White Plains, NY 10604

Table of Contents
3.3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.3.2 Structure, Composition, and Natural Color of Hair
3.3.3.3 Fundamentals and Signs of Aging Hair
3.3.3.4 Photo-Aging of Hair

3.3.3.5 Protection of Hair from Aging


3.3.3.6 Anti-Aging Hair Care Products

Conclusion
References
Glossary

Part 3.3.4

Mechanisms of Changes in Hair Shape

Manuel Gamez-Garcia
Ashland Specialty Ingredients

Table of contents:

3.3.4.1 Introduction

3.3.4.2 The shape memory properties of hair

3.3.4.3 Changes in hair shape by water-setting

3.3.4.4 Changes in hair shape by hot iron treatments

3.3.4.5 Physical processes taking place inside hair during hot ironing


3.3.4.6 Hair shape changes induced by permanent waving solutions
 

3.3.4.7 Hair shape changes induced by alkaline relaxers

3.3.4.8 Hair shape changes induced during grooming practices



3.3.4.9 Hair volume and changes in hair shape

3.3.4.10 Frizz in hair and changes in shape
3.3.4.11 Body in hair and changes in hair shape

3.3.4.12 Hair shape changes induced by styling polymers

3.3.4.13 Role of styling polymers in changing hair shape


References

Part 3.3.5

Eyelashes: Anatomy and Conditioners
For Increasing Length and Fullness/Thickness

Author:
Susan Lin, M.D.
448 N. San Mateo Drive San Mateo CA 94401 USA

Table of Contents:

3.3.5.1 Lash Anatomy
3.3.5.2 Lash Growth Cycle

3.3.5.3 Lash Conditioners

Conclusion
Future Development
References

Part 3.4

The Nails

Dr. Lawrence Silverberg
Vice President of Technology & Clinical Director
NailPure

Table of Contents:

3.4.1 Introduction -Toenails and Fingernails

3.4.2 Histology, Ultrastructure, and Composition

3.4.3 Rate of Nail Growth

3.4.4 Nail Pathologies


References

Part 3.5

The Nose

Accessing the Biology of Human Olfaction:
New, All-Natural Fragrance Ingredients;
Novel Consumer Fragrance Experiences and Applications

Author:
Kambiz Shekdar, Visiting Scientist, Rockefeller University

Table of Contents

The Biology of Olfaction and Fragrance Ingredient Discovery and Creation

3.5.1 Odorant Receptors
3.5.2 Cell-Based High-Throughput Odorant DiscoveryPrinciples and Basic Design
3.5.3 New Ingredients and Applications
3.5.4 Methods

References

Part 3.6.1

The Mouth and Oral Care

Roger Ellwood
Colgate-Palmolive Company
Director of Clinical Research for Europe
and
Scott Harper (Author of Harry's 8th Edition: Mouth and Oral Care)

Table of Contents:

3.6.1 The Teeth And Their Surroundings

3.6.2 The Teeth

3.6.3 The Gums

3.6.4 Oral Fluids

3.6.5 The Oral Soft Tissues

3.6.6 Dental Deposits

3.6.7 Major Oral Problems And Their Remedies Overview

References

Part 3.7

Lip Skin: Structure and Function

Author:
Philip Wertz, Ph.D.
Dows Institute
University of Iowa
Iowa City IA 52242 USA

Table of Contents:

3.7.1 Vermilion zone/vermilion border
3.7.2 TEWL/hydration
3.7.3 Sebaceous follicles
3.7.4 Stratum corneum lipids
3.7.5 Change with age

Part 3.8

Feminine Rejuvenation

Author:
Susan F. Lin M.D.
448 N. San Mateo Drive
San Mateo CA 94401 USA

Table of Contents:

3.8.1 The Anatomy
3.8.2 Vulvar Innervations: Physiological and Analytical
3.8.3 Vulvar Atrophy: Causes and Physiology

3.8.4 Treatments

3.8.5 A New Frontier

Part 4 Ingredients

Part 4.1.0

Ingredients

Editor's Introduction to the Ingredient Section

Editor of the Ingredients Section:
Chia Wen Chen
Executive Director of Basic ResearchBioActives
Este Lauder Companies
125 Pinelawn Road
Melville, NY 11747

Part 4.1.1

Surfactants: Thoughtful, Pro-Active Intervention
at the Interface of Multiphase Dispersed Systems

Author:
J. Mark Chandler
President of ACT Solutions Corp

Table of Contents

4.1.10 Surfactant Introduction

4.1.11 Functions

4.1.12 Applications: A look at some of the many

4.1.13 How Surfactants Work


4.1.14 Surfactant Chemistry


References

Part 4.1.2

Ingredients for Creating the Next Greatest Lipstick

Nick Morante
Nick Morante Cosmetic Consultants

Table of Contents:

4.1.2.1 Introduction
4.1.2.2 What attributes are we looking for in a lipstick?
4.1.2.3 Traditional ingredients used in creating a lipstick
4.1.2.4 Trendy and exotic ingredients for lipstick
4.1.2.5 Miscellaneous

References

Part 4.1.3

Hyaluronan (Hyaluronic Acid) A Natural Moisturizer Skin Care

Authors:

Dr. Daniela Smejkalova Nano-carrier Development Group
Dr. Gloria Huerta-Angeles Biopolymers Modification Group
Tereza Ehlova Hyaluronan Fragments Group
Contipro Pharma, Doln Dobrou 401, 561 02, Czech Republic

Table of Contents

4.1.3.1 Structure and selected physical-chemical properties of hyaluronan
4.1.3.2 Preparation of hyaluronan fragments, isolation and characterization thereof, characterization of degradation products of hyaluronan
4.1.3.3 Preparation of chemical derivatives of hyaluronan, characterization thereof
4.1.3.4 Hyaluronan penetration into the stratum corneum and into the skin
4.1.3.5 Moisturizing properties of native high-molecular hyaluronan and how the moisturizing properties change as the molecular weight is reduced
4.1.3.6 Cosmetic application for various molecular weights of hyaluronan

References
Glossary


Part 4.1.4.1

Ayurveda in personal care

Smitha Rao MS, MBA
Lonza
70 Tyler place South Plainfield NJ 07080

Table of Contents:

4.1.4.11 Background and folkloric use of Ayurvedic medicine
4.1.4.12 Ingredients appropriate for cosmetic/topical use
4.1.4.13 Conclusion

References
Table 1

Part 4.1.4.2

Probiotics in Topical Personal Healthcare: A New Understanding A Bright Future

Author:

Donald R. Owen, Ph.D., President
Owen Biosciences Inc.
7053 Revenue Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70809

Table of Contents

4.1.4.21 Introduction
4.1.4.22 Overview
4.1.4.23 Conclusion

References

Part 4.1.4.3

Green and sustainable ingredients from Biotransformation and biofermentation

Author:

Smitha Rao MS, MBA
Lonza
70 Tyler place South Plainfield NJ 07080

Table of Contents:

4.1.4.31 The rise of green and sustainable cosmetic ingredients from fermentation
4.1.4.32 The impact on environment
4.1.4.33 Activity in cosmetics

Conclusion
References

Part 4.1.5

Multi-Functional Botanicals for Topical Applications

Authors:

Anurag Pande, Ph.D.
Sabinsa Corporation

Dr. Muhammed Majeed
Sabinsa Corporation

Table of Contents

4.1.5.1 Introduction
4.1.5.2 Natural and naturally derived actives
4.1.5.3 Extraction techniques
4.1.5.4 Role of standardization

4.1.5.5 Multifunctional Botanicals

4.1.5.6 Sustainability of Botanicals

Conclusion
References

Part 4.1.6

Ingredients to Strengthen Skin Barrier Integrity:
From algal protective exoskeleton to a Protective Barrier for the Epidermis

Author:

Alexandra Jeanneau
Scientific communication officer, Alban Muller Group

Table of contents

4.1.6.1 Skin barrier and epidermis organization overview



4.1.6.2 Solution for alterations in epidermis

4.1.6.3 A natural ingredient to strengthen skin barrier integrity inspired by an alga's primitive strategy

Conclusion
Glossary
References

Part 4.1.7.1

Antimicrobial Preservatives for the Cosmetic and Personal Care Industry

Author:

Daryl Paulson Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer
BioScience Laboratories, Inc.

Table of Contents:

4.1.7.11 The use of Preservatives in Cosmetics, a brief history
4.1.7.12 Traditional Preservatives
4.1.7.13 Problems we face with the use of preservatives

Conclusion
References

Part 4.1.7.2

Antioxidants: Extending the Shelf Life of Your Products

Author:

Satish Nayak, Ph.D.
Kemin Industries,
2100 Maury Street, Des Moines, Iowa

Table of Contents:

4.1.7.21 Introduction
4.1.7.22 Oxidation
4.1.7.23 Antioxidants
4.1.7.24 Primary Antioxidants
4.1.7.25 Secondary Antioxidants
4.1.7.26 Antioxidant Assays

Conclusion
References

Part 4.2.1

Natural and Synthetic Polymers:
Designing Rheological Properties for Applications

Author:

Susan Freers
Grain Processing Corporation

Table of Contents:

4.2.1.1 Designing Rheological Behavior
4.2.1.2 Natural and Synthetic Polymers: Rheological Properties and Applications
4.2.1.3 Rheological additives used to obtain specific properties
4.2.1.4 Rheological additives for aqueous systems
4.2.1.5 Rheological additives for non-aqueous systems

References
Glossary

Part 4.2.2

Rheology Modifiers and Consumer Perception

Authors:

Lisa Gandolfi, Ph.D.
Clariant Corporation
Technical Manager, Consumer Care North America
625 East Catawba Avenue
Mount Holly, NC 28120 USA

Ramiro Galleguillos, Ph.D.
Lubrizol Advanced Materials Inc.
Senior Research Associate
9911 Brecksville Rd.
Brecksville, Ohio 44141 USA


Table of Contents:

4.2.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2.2 Rheological Parameters



4.2.2.3 Synthetic Polymeric Rheology Modifiers



4.2.2.4 Rheological Properties and the Consumer Experience

4.2.2.5 Polymeric Rheology Modifiers in Emulsion Formulations

4.2.2.6 Polymeric Rheology Modifiers in Hydroalcoholic Formulations

4.2.2.7 Polymeric Rheology Modifiers in Optical Effects Cleansing Formulations

Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Part 4.2.3.1

Silicones in Personal Care Products:
Polydimethyl Siloxanes, Organosilicone Polymers, & Copolymers

Authors:

Anthony J. O'Lenick, Jr.
President
Siltech LLC
2170 Luke Edwards Rd
Dacula, Ga 30019

Thomas O'Lenick PhD
Technical Director
SurfaTech Corporation
1625 Lakes Parkway
Suite N
Lawrenceville Ga 30043

Meyer R. Rosen, FRSC, CPC, CChE, FAIC
President
Interactive Consulting. Inc
P.O. Bo 66
East Norwich, New York, 11732

Table of Contents:

Preface

4.2.3.11 Introduction
4.2.3.12 Solubility
4.2.3.13 Surface Tension

4.2.3.14 Silicone Nomenclature

a. Summary of Silicone Polymer Structure Types

4.2.3.15 Volatile Silicones

a. Cyclomethicone Replacements
b. Summary of Successful Replacements for Cyclomethicones

4.2.3.16 Silicone Fluids

4.2.3.17 Resins and Elastomers

4.2.3.18 Dimethicone Copolyol (PEG/PPG Dimethicone)

4.2.3.19 Alkyl Dimethicone

4.2.3.20 Multi-Domain Alkyl Dimethicone



4.2.3.21 Alkyl Dimethicone Copolyol
4.2.3.22 Greening with Silicone
a. Summary

References

Part 4.2.3.2

Silicone Elastomer Applications

Author:

John Gormley
Director of Regulatory Affairs /QA
Grant Industries
103 Main Avenue
Elmwood Park, NJ 07407 USA

Table of Contents:

4.2.3.21 Silicone Elastomers for Improved Consumer Acceptance of a Product: Achieving the "WOW" effect
4.2.3.22 Cosmetic Attributes Texture and Oil Control (Mattifying)
4.2.3.23 Example Cosmetic Formulas with Silicone Elastomers
4.2.3.24 Summary

References

Part 4.2.4

Skin Whitener Ingredients

Author:

Herve Offredo, MSc in Microbiology, MBA in Management and Finance
Senior Vice President Sales and Marketing
Barnet Products
140 Sylvan Avenue
Englewood Cliffs, 07632 NJ

Table of Contents:

4.2.4.1 Historic Evolution of Whitening Products in Japan
4.2.4.2 What Is a Whitening Quasi-Drug?

4.2.4.3 What Are the Quasi-Drug Additives?

Conclusion
References

Part 4.2.5

Marine Ingredients for Skin Care: An Ocean of Resources

Author:

Herve Offredo
MSc in Microbiology, MBA in Management and Finance
Senior Vice President Sales and Marketing
Barnet Products
140 Sylvan Avenue
Englewood Cliffs, 07632 NJ

Table of Contents:

4.2.5.1 Marine resources



4.2.5.2 Examples of the use of macroalgae in cosmetics


4.2.5.3 Examples of the use of microalgae in cosmetics

4.2.5.4 Examples of the use of coastal plants in cosmetics

Conclusion
References

Part 4.2.6

Topical Reduction of Visible Skin Deterioration Due to Cellulite

Authors:

Peter T Pugliese, MD, 7139 Bernville Road, Bernville, PA 19506
Michael Q. Pugliese, LE, Circadia by Dr Pugliese 8371 Route 183 Bethel, PA 19507

Table of Contents:

4.2.6.1 A Possible Etiology for Cellulite
4.2.6.2 The Menstrual Cycle
4.2.6.3 The Matrix Metalloproteinases
4.2.6.4 The Menstrual Cycle, MMPs, and Ovulation
4.2.6.5 The MMPs and the Menstrual Cycle
4.2.6.6 The key step relating menses to the genesis of cellulite

4.2.6.7 Topical Therapy for Reversing the Appearance of Cellulite

4.2.6.8 Agents That Block MMPs
4.2.6.9 Mobilizing Adipose Tissue
4.2.6.10 Blocking Phosphodiesterase
4.2.6.11 Shuttling Fat into Mitochondria
4.2.6.12 Rebuilding Collagen
4.2.6.13 Collagen Stimulators
4.2.6.14 Clinical Studies

Conclusion
References

Part 4.3.1

Topical Retinoids

Author:

Aanand N. Geria, MD

Table of Contents:

4.3.1.1 Introduction
4.3.1.2 Pharmacology

4.3.1.3 Indications

4.3.1.4 Adverse Effects

References

Part 4.3.2

Peptides for Anti-Aging Skin Care

Author:

Howard Epstein, Ph.D.
EMD Chemicals
One International Plaza, Philadelphia, PA 19113

Table of Contents:

4.3.2.1 Peptides for Anti-Aging Skin Care
4.3.2.2 What is a peptide?
4.3.2.3 Skin Structure and Peptide Categories
4.3.2.4 Bioactive Peptides Marketed for Skin Care Products

Conclusion
References

Part 4.3.3

MicroRNAs in Skin Physiology

Authors:

Jean-Marie Botto (Ph.D.), Valre Busuttil (Ph.D.), Florian Labarrade (M.Sc.), Catherine Serre (M.Sc.), Laurine Bergeron (M.Sc.), Christophe Capallere (M.Sc.), and Nouha Domloge (M.D.)
Ashland Specialties France, Global Skin Research Center, Upstream Research, Sophia-Antipolis, France.

Table of Contents:

4.3.3.1 RNA interference and microRNAstimeline of the discoveries

a. Discovery of microRNAs
b. The concept of RNA interference

4.3.3.2 MicroRNAs - nomenclature, structure, function, mechanism of action

4.3.3.3 MicroRNAs regulate various aspects of human physiology and epigenetics

4.3.3.4 MicroRNAs and skin physiology  

4.3.3.5 Interest of microRNAs in the evaluation in vitro of anti-aging dermo-cosmetic ingredients

Conclusion
References
Glossary

Part 4.3.4

Amino Acids

Author:

Bruce W. Gesslein
Technical Manager, Specialty and Personal Care
Ajinomoto North America, Inc.
400 Kelby St, Fort Lee NJ 07024 USA

Table of Contents:

4.3.4.1 Overview of Amino Acids

4.3.4.2 The Appearance of Aging of Skin and Hair

4.3.4.3 Hair

4.3.4.4 Formulation for Skin Care

4.3.4.5 Hair Care

Conclusion
References
Glossary

Part 4.3.5

AHAs and Beyond: Anti-Aging Ingredients and Their
Benefits for All Layers of the Skin

Editor:
Ronni L. Weinkauf, Ph.D.
VP, Applied Research Hair, Skin, and Makeup
L'Oreal USA
111 Terminal Ave
Clark, NJ

Contributing Authors:
Peter Konish
Director of Sensory and Formulation Development
NeoStrata Company, Inc
307 College Road East
Princeton, NJ 08540

Stacy S. Hawkins, Ph.D.
Global Clinical Leader
Unilever Research and Development
50 Commerce Drive, Trumbull, CT 06615

Uma Santhanam, Ph.D.
Senior Manager, Cell Biology and In Vitro Toxicology
Avon Products, Inc.
One Avon Place
Suffern, NY 10901


Table of Contents:

4.3.5.1 Introduction
4.3.5.2 Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHAs)
4.3.5.3 Quantitative Clinical Benefits of AHAs
4.3.5.4 Cellular and Structural Changes Associated with AHAs
4.3.5.5 Polyhydroxy Acids (PHAs)
4.3.5.6 Bionic Acids (BAs)
4.3.5.7 Formulation Strategies for Maximizing Hydroxy Acid Performance
4.3.5.8 N-Acetylamino Sugars
4.3.5.9 N-Acetylamino Acids
Conclusion
References
Glossary

Part 4.3.6

Cytokines, Growth Factors, and Stem Cells: Newest Approaches to Younger Looking Skin

Authors:

Sarah A Malerich, BS, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, 5000 Lakewood Ranch Blvd, Bradenton, Florida, 34211
Nils Krueger, PhD, and Neil S. Sadick, Sadick Dermatology Research Group, 911 Park Avenue, Suite 1A, New York, New York, 10075

Table of Contents:

4.3.6.1 Aging
4.3.6.2 Growth Factors and Cytokines
4.3.6.3 Stem Cells
Conclusion
References

Part 4.3.7

Antioxidants in Cosmetics for Anti-Aging

Author:
Ratan K. Chaudhuri
Sytheon Ltd.,
Boonton, New Jersey

Table of Contents:

4.3.7.1 Background
4.3.7.2 Causes of UV-Induced Chemical and Biochemical Changes in Skin
4.3.7.3 Antioxidants in the Defense System of the Skin
4.3.7.4 Consequences of UV-Induced Chemical and Biochemical Changes in Skin

4.3.7.5 Use of Conventional and Nonconventional Antioxidants for Skin Protection and Reversal of Signs of Aging

a. Conventional Antioxidants
b. Other Photoprotectants

Conclusion
References


Part 5 Anti-Aging

Part 5.0

Fundamentals of Skin Anti-Aging Overview

Editor:
Navin M. Geria, Doctors Skin Prescription (DSP), Senior Technical Advisor & Principal
DSP- Doctors Skin Prescription
34 Mountainview Road, Warren, NJ 07059

Howard Epstein Ph.D., EMD Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA

Part 5.1

Theories of Aging
Skin Anti-Aging: At the Tipping Point

Navin M. Geria, Doctors Skin Prescription (DSP), Senior Technical Advisor & Principal
DSP- Doctors Skin Prescription
34 Mountainview Road, Warren, NJ 07059

Table of Contents:

5.1.1 Theories of Aging
Conclusions
References

Part 5.2

The Cellular Water Principle

Author:

Howard Murad, MD
2121 Rosecrans Avenue, 5th Floor
El Segundo, CA 90245

Table of Contents:

Theories of Aging and Cellular Water

5.2.1 What is aging, from a physiological perspective?
5.2.2 Why do we age?
5.2.3 Water loss and membrane hypothesis of aging
5.2.4 The Science of Cellular Water
Conclusion
References

Part 5.3

Anti-Senescence: Achieving the Anti-Aging Effect by Managing Cellular Functions

Authors:

Shyam Gupta, Ph.D.
Bioderm Research

Linda Walker
CoValence, Inc.

Table of Contents:

5.3.1 Role of Cellular Senescence and Apoptosis in Skin Aging

5.3.2 Role of Enzyme Dysfunction in Skin Aging

5.3.3 Anhydrobiosis and Skin Aging

5.3.4 Osmoprotection, Cellular Anti-Senescence, and Skin Anti-Aging

5.3.5 New Peptide Derivatives for Anti-Senescence and Skin Anti-Aging

5.3.6 Consumer Perception and Marketing of Enzyme Biology-Based Skin Care Products

References


Part 5.4

Glycation, Proteasome Activation, and Telomere Maintenance

Author:
Karl Lintner, PhD
President of Kal'idees S.A.S.

Table of Contents:

5.4.1 Glycation

5.4.2 The Proteasome

5.4.3 Telomeres

Conclusion
References


Part 5.5

Sirtuins and Skin

Authors:
Edward Pelle, Este Lauder Research Laboratories; Melville, New York
Nadine Pernodet, Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine

Table of Contents

5.5.1 Introduction to sirtuins
5.5.2 Organelle-specific biochemistry of sirtuins
5.5.3 Sirtuin response to environmental changes
5.5.4 Application of sirtuins to anti-aging skin care
References
Glossary

Part 5.6

Epigenetics of Skin Aging

Author:

Rebecca James Gadberry
Senior Instructor & Program Coordinator,
Cosmetic Sciences, UCLA Extension
Consultant, Skin Care Strategy, Brand & Product Development

Table of Contents:

5.6.1 The Human Genome Project Gives Birth To The Epigenetic Revolution
5.6.2 Epigenetics Defined

5.6.3 Two Primary Epigenetic Mechanisms

5.6.4 Epigenetic Links To Aging
5.6.5 Epigenetics And Aging Skin
5.6.6 Epigenetics Mechanisms In DNA Damage and Repair
5.6.7 Cosmetic Ingredients As Epigenetic Modifiers
5.6.8 Nutriepigenetics: How Diet Alters the Epigenome
5.6.9 Epigenetics: The Unifying Theory Of Aging?
5.6.10 What the Future Holds

References
Glossary
List of Figures

Part 5.7

Chronobiology of the Skin
Skin Circadian Rhythm and Clock Genes:
A New Approach to Slowing Down the Aging Process

Authors:

Nadine Pernodet, Ph.D. Vice President of Skin Biology Research

Edward Pelle, Ph.D. Director, Skin Biology Research
Este Lauder Research Laboratories
Melville, NY, US

Table of Contents:

5.7.1 Introduction to Circadian Rhythm and Clock Genes
5.7.2 Desynchronization: Causes and Impact
5.7.3 Skin Circadian Rhythm
References

Part 5.8

Stress, Sleep and Epigenetic Orthodontics:
New Directions for Non-Surgical Skin Anti-Aging

Author:
Dr. Barry Chase DDS

Table of Contents:

Stress, Sleep and Epigenetic Orthodontics:
New Directions for Non- Surgical Skin Anti-Aging

5.8.1 Sleep, Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Disorders, and Skin Aging

5.8.12 Sleep, Aging, and Aging Skin

5.8.13 Therapy

Conclusion

Part 5.8.2
Epigenetic Orthodontics and Dento-Facial Orthopedics:
Non-surgical Facial Esthetic Therapy


Part 6 Formulating

Formulating Cosmetics and Personal Care Products

Editor:

Charles Warren
President, Charles F. Warren Consulting Inc


Contributors:

Charles Warren Charles F. Warren Consulting Inc.

Eva Patel, Skin Rx

Gurpreet (Gogi) Sangha, CEO of G.S. Cosmeceutical

Mark Lees, Ph.D., M.S., CIDESCO Diplomate

Germain Puccetti, Ashland Chemical

Nevine Issa, and Hani Fares Ph.D.

Carrie Shipley, Grain Processing Corporation

Padmaja Prem, VP of Combe's Global Research


Skin Care

Overview

6.1 Formulating Wisdom Category by Category (Author: Charles Warren)

6.2 Skin Lightening, Whitening, and Brightening:
An Overview of Approaches, Key Ingredients, and Formulations for Enhancing Skin Appearance and Correcting/Minimizing Common Skin Pigmentation Disorders
(Authors: Eva Patel and Gogi Sangha)

6.2.1 Definitions
6.2.2 Common Skin Pigmentation Disorders
6.2.3 Triggers for Hyperpigmentation
6.2.4 Pathway to Hyperpigmentation
6.2.5 Formulating IngredientsA Plethora of raw materials and how they come into play
6.2.6 Formulations for Individual Skin Conditions
6.2.7 Claims / Regulations for USA

6.3 Sunscreens (Author Charles Warren)

6.4 Antiperspirants / Deodorants (Author Charles Warren)

6.5 Acne, Oily, ad Aging Skin Product Formulation (Author Mark Lees)

6.5.1 Introduction

6.5.2. Review of factors in acne development

6.5.3 Management of acne-prone skin

6.5.4 A Program Approach

References

6.6 Face and Body - Masks / Scrubs (Author Charles Warren)

6.6.1 Cleansers/Scrubs
6.6.2 Wipes
6.6.3 Moisturizers
6.6.4 Treatments
6.6.5 Perfumes/Fragrances

6.7 Shaving Preparations: Pre and Post (Author Charles Warren)
6.7.1 Men's Products
a. Shave Creams
b. After-Shave Lotions
6.7.2 Women's Products
a. Shaving Products
b. Depilatories
c. Bleaches

Pigmented Cosmetics

6.8 Color Cosmetics: An Introduction to Formulation and Approaches for Mascaras, Foundations and Lipsticks
(Authors: Germain Puccetti, Nevine Issa, and Hani Fares)

6.8.1 Color cosmetics and the consumer perspective

6.8.2 Foundations

6.8.3 Lipsticks and lip-glosses

6.8.4 Mascaras

6.8.5 Skincare actives in foundations and lipsticks

References

Hair Care

6.9 Formulating Wisdom Category by Category

6.10 Shampoos
Ingredients, Formulation and Efficacy Evaluation
(Author Carrie Shipley, Applications Scientist, Grain Processing Corporation)

Introduction

Section I: Typical Shampoo Ingredients

6.10.1 Surfactants
6.10.2 Rheology and Viscosity Modifiers
6.10.3 Other Shampoo Ingredients
6.10.4 Fragrance
6.10.5 Preservatives
6.10.6 Types of Shampoos

Section II: Hair-Cleansing Mechanism

6.10.7 Cleaning of solid particulates
6.10.8 Cleaning of oily soil
6.10.9 Efficacy of soil removal by shampoos
6.10.10 Cleaning of sebum
6.10.11 Cleaning of quaternary ammonium compounds
6.10.12 Cleaning of polymeric residue
6.10.13 Effect of shampoos on hair

Section III: Shampoo Evaluation

Section IV: Future Trends in Shampoos

References
Glossary


6.11 Hair Styling (Author Charles Warren)

6.12 Specialty Styling Products (Author Charles Warren)
6.13 Permanent Waving (Author Charles Warren)
6.14 Conditioners/Treatments (Author Charles Warren)

6.15 Hair Colorants and Protection
(Author: Padmaja Prem Vice President, Research & Development
Combe Incorporated, 1101 Westchester Avenue
White Plains, NY 10604)

6.15.1 Introduction
6.15.2 Fundamentals of Hair Coloring
6.15.3 Factors Influencing Color Fading and Color Removal
6.15.4 Color Protection
6.15.5 Color Vibrancy and Shine
6.15.6 Remedies for Color Protection, Vibrancy, and Shine
6.15.7 Ingredients and Products for Color-Treated Hair
6.15.8 Conclusions

References


6.16 Reactive Hair Care Products (Author Charles Warren)

6.16.1 Colors
6.16.2 Bleaches
6.16.3 Straighteners


6.17 Formula/Product Development from the Formulator's Viewpoint (Expectations, Initial Prototypes, Final Prototypes) (Author Charles Warren)

6.17.1 Functionality/Performance
6.17.2 Marketing Requirements/Expectations
6.17.3 Manufacturing Requirements/Expectations
6.17.4 New Raw Materials, Bases, Forms
6.17.5 Final Packaging
6.17.6 Stability
6.17.7 Personal Trial
6.17.8 Preliminary Stability
6.17.9 Final Formulation
6.17.10 Final Stability

Part 6.18

Oral Care: Formulating Products and Practices for Health and Beauty

Editor:

Caren M. Barnes
Professor Coordinator of Clinical Research
University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry

Contributors:

Chi Shing Wong
Member, Product Development Group
Colgate-Palmolive Global Toothbrush Division

James G Masters, Ph.D.
Director in the Research and Development Division
Colgate-Palmolive Company

Shira Pilch, Ph.D.
Associate Director: Research and Development Division
Colgate-Palmolive Company

Michael Prencipe, Ph.D.
Director in the Research and Development Division
Colgate-Palmolive Company

Table of Contents:

6.18 Introduction

A. Important Issues in Oral Health
B. Importance of Aesthetics in Dentistry
C. Halitosis (oral malodor)
D. Oral Issues Related to Aging
1. Demographics of Aging: What to Expect
2. Oral Health and the Aging

6.18.1 Personal Oral Care

A. Dentifrices
B. Mouthrinses


6.18.2 Oral Hygiene Aids

A. Manual Toothbrush
B. Powered Toothbrush
C. Interdental Cleaning Devices

Summary
References

Part 7. Sensory Characterization

Part 7.1

Sensory Signals The applied science of sensory perception and its value

Author:

Lee Stapleton
Program Director
Sensory Spectrum

Table of Contents:

7.1.1 Overview
7.1.2 History of sensory evaluation
7.1.3 Defining sensory properties
7.1.4 Rationale for generating technical-based language for objective product description
7.1.5 Introduction to descriptive analysis methodology
7.1.6 The spectrum descriptive analysis method: philosophy and principles
7.1.7 Fundamentals for developing lexicons
7.1.8 Process for developing personal care product lexicons
7.1.9 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for lotions and creams
7.1.10 Sample protocol for skin preparation and maintenance during testing
7.1.11 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of hair tresses
7.1.12 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of lather and skinfeel of bar soaps
7.1.13 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of appearance and skinfeel of antiperspirants using inner arm site
7.1.14 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of appearance and skinfeel of facial foundation using half-face
7.1.15 Applications of descriptive analysis for personal care and cosmetics
References

Part 8. Delivery Systems

Part 8.1

Delivery Systems for Cosmetics and Personal Care

Authors:

Nripen S. Sharma Ph.D., Salvona LLC ,
Bryan Grossman
Sam Shefer Ph.D.

Table of Contents:

8.1.1 Background and Motivation

8.1.2 Classification of Delivery Systems

8.1.3 Lipid-B based Encapsulation Systems

8.1.4 Sugar-Bbased Technologies

a. Cyclodextrins

8.1.5 Other Delivery Systems

a. HydroSal Technology
b. Cellesence
c. Fermenich
d. Thermarome
e. Givaudan
f. Evoglass
1. Retinol
2. Menthol
3. Resveratrol
4. Benzoyl Peroxide
5. Salicylic Acid
6. Fragrances

8.1.6 Technical Challenges in Delivery Systems

References


Part 9 Nutracosmetics

Part 9.1

The Use of Nutraceutical Ingredients in the Cosmetic Industry

Author:
Qi Jia
Chief Science Officer
Unigen Inc. 3005 First Avenue, Seattle, WA 98121

Table of Contents:

9.1.1 Introduction
9.1.2 Nutraceutical ingredients that are suitable for cosmetic usage

9.1.3 Characterization of nutracosmetic ingredients based on biological function

a. Anti-oxidation
b. Anti-inflammation
c. Immune protection
d. Skin hydration
e. Supporting healthy skin-cell renewal and rebuilding dermal structure
f. Anti-skin aging

9.1.4 Bioavailability and clinical considerations

Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References


Part 9.2

Multi-Functional Botanicals for Nutricosmetics Applications
Authors:

Anurag Pande, Ph.D.
Dr. Muhammed Majeed
Sabinsa

Table of Contents:

9.2.1 Introduction (aAbout the Nutricosmetics in general)
9.2.2 Global market
9.2.3 Ayurveda and Botanicals

9.2.4 Multifunctional Nutricosmetics

a. Amla - Saberry (Indian Gooseberry)
b. Green Tea polyphenols (Green Tea)
c. Ellagic acid (Pomegranate)
d. Curcumin C3 Reduct (Turmeric)
e. Cococin (Coconut Water)

Conclusion

Part 10 NanoCosmetics

Part 10.1

Nanocosmetics

Authors:

Allison Kutner,
Joy Makdisi,
Adam Friedman, MD, FAAD
Division of Dermatology
Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Table of Contents:

Nanotechnology and anti-aging

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Nanomaterials for skin delivery: nanoemulsions, liposomes, and nanoparticles


10.1.3 Nanotechnology and photoprotection
10.1.4 Nanotechnology and hair care
10.1.5 Nanotechnology and makeup/coverup
10.1.6 Nanotechnology and emollient therapy
10.1.7 Nanotechnology and anti-aging

Conclusion
References

Part 11 Testing

Part 11.1

Methods to Assess Skin Barrier Integrity:
Effects of Cleansing Products

Authors:

Guojin Lu,
Roger L. McMullen,
David J. Moore
Ashland Specialty Ingredients


Table of Contents:

11.1.1 Introduction

11.1.2 Physicochemical interactions between surfactants and skin

11.1.3 Approaches and methods to assess the effects of cleansing stresses on skin barrier integrity

a. Surfactant-skin/SC interactions

b. Surfactant-lipid interactions

c. Skin-protein interactions


Conclusion
References

Part 11.2

Imaging Techniques and Analysis for Quantification of Skin Appearance

Author:

Roger L. McMullen, Ph.D.
Principal Scientist
Materials Science Department
Ashland, Inc.
Bridgewater, NJ 08807

Adjunct Professor
School of Natural Sciences
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Teaneck, NJ 07666

Table of Contents:

11.2.1 Skin Surface Imaging and Analysis

11.2.2 In Vivo Imaging of Internal Features of Skin

11.2.3 High-Resolution Microscopic Techniques for Imaging Skin

11.2.4 Image Analysis to Quantify Histological and Immunofluorescent Staining of Ex Vivo and In Vitro Skin Cell Cultures


Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

Part 11.3

Biophysical Measurement and Evaluation of Skin Elasticity and Topography

Authors:

Stefanie Luebberding, PhD
Nils Krueger, PhD

IRosenpark Research
Wilhelminenstrae 13
64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

Table of Contents:

11.3.1 Skin Topography

11.3.2 Skin Elasticity

a. Quantitative assessment of skin elasticity

Conclusion
References
Glossary

Part 11.4
A Survey of Test Methodology Used in Evaluating the Damage, Protection and Repair of Hair

Authors:
Ray Rigoletto Sr. Manager,
Global R&D Applications Care Specialties: Hair Care; Home Care
Ashland, Inc.
1005 US Hwy No. 202/206 Bridgewater, NJ 08807

Tim Gillece
Ashland, Inc.

Table of Contents:

11.4.1 Introduction
11.4.2 The nature of hair damage

11.4.3 Simulating damaging hair treatments for studying the alleviating effects of protective and repair ingredients

a. Treatment schedules
1. Thermal Exposure
2. UV Exposure
3. Color wash-fastness techniques
4. Mechanical and thermal-mechanical damage

11.4.4 Instrumentation and experimental methods for studying damage and protection of hair

a. Physical-Chemical
1. Differential Scanning Calorimetry
2. Surface Tension, Wetting, and Contact Angle Analysis
3. Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS)
4. Streaming Potential
5. Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
6. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
7. Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC)

b. Spectroscopic
1. Infrared Imaging (IR imaging)
2. Spectrofluorimetry

c. Microscopy
1. Optical Microscopy
2. Microfluorimetry
3. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
4. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

d. Mechanical properties
1. Tensile testing
2. Impact Loading
3. Flexabrasion
4. Fatigue analysis
5. Torsional Strain
6. Texture analysis
7. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

e. Image analysis

f. Infrared Thermography (IRT)

11.4.5 Color protection

11.4.6 Repair Techniques

11.4.7 Tests to study whole hair attributes from damaging effects and improvements with cosmetic treatments


Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

Part 11.5

Clinical Testing of Cosmetics and Skin Care Products: Methods and Instrumentations

Author:

Iqbal Sadiq, M.Phil.
Director Research and Technology
Product Investigations, Inc.
151 East Tenth Ave., Conshohocken, PA 19428, USA

Table of Contents:

11.5.1 Introduction
11.5.2 Cosmetics and Skin Care products for human use
11.5.3 Skin Strata

11.5.4 Bio-Instrumentation

11.5.5 Skin Hydration

11.5.6 Trans-Epidermal Water Loss

11.5.7 Skin Blood Flow, Color, Erythema

11.5.8 Imaging Techniques

a. Digital Photography

b. Ultrasound
c. Videomicroscopy
d. Confocal Microscopy
e. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

11.5.9 Skin Topography

11.5.10 Viscoelastic Measurements

11.5.11 Some Ex Vivo Techniques

11.5.12 Application of Bio-Instrumentation: Some Examples

Conclusion
References

Part 11.6

Nanomaterials Characterization

Authors:

Simon Allen, Intertek MSG, D125 The Wilton Centre, Wilton, Redcar, United Kingdom, TS10 4RF
Christian Gimenez, Intertek Chalon, Espaces Entreprises, 12 Rue Alfred Kastler, Fragnes, France 71530
Peter DeSanto Jr., Intertek Allentown, 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA, USA 18195
Scott Hanton, Intertek Allentown
Todd McEvoy, Intertek Allentown
John Zielinski, Intertek Allentown

Table of Contents:

Introduction

11.6.1 Particle Size, Distribution, and Shape

a. Inorganic Particles
b. Liposoluble Organic Soluble Nanomaterials and Their Delivery Systems
c. Nanomaterial Legislation in Cosmetics
d. Nanomaterials Characterization
1. Particle Size, Distribution, and Shape
1.1 Electron Microscopy Techniques: TEM and SEM
1.2 Probe-based techniques: STM and AFM
1.3 Dynamic Light Scattering
1.4 High-resolution particle sedimentation

11.6.2 Surface Chemistry

11.6.3 Surface Area and Porosity

11.6.4 Physical Properties

11.6.5 Bulk Metals Analysis


Conclusion
Terms
Equations
References

Part 11.7

In Vitro Assays to Measure Epigenetic Mechanisms Involved with Controlling Gene Expression

Author:

Robert Holtz, President
BioInnovation Laboratories
7220 W. Jefferson Ave., Ste 112Lakewood, CO 80235 USA

Table of Contents:

11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 DNA Modifications: DNA Methylation

11.7.3 Histone Modifications

Conclusion
References

Part 12 Sustainability and Eco-Responsibility

Part 12.0 A Global Approach for the Cosmetic and Personal Care Industry

Editor's Overview
Alban Muller (President, Alban Muller Group)

Part 12.1 Defining Sustainability and how it changes the innovation process

Authors:

Jamie Pero Parker (Innovation Manager, RTI International) and
Phil Watson (Technology Commercialization Manager, RTI International)

12.1.1 Sustainabilitya critical business issue

12.1.2 Innovation is a critical but challenging component of any sustainability strategy

12.1.3 Integration of sustainability principles into innovation practices is evolutionary


References

Part 12.2

A Botanist's view of Sustainability: Use or Abuse in the Personal Care Industry?

Author:

Michael J. Balick (Vice President of Botanical Sciences, Director of the Institute of Economic Botany, New York Botanical Gardens)

12.2.1 Introduction

12.2.2 What happens once you find a species of interest?

1. Accurate identification of botanicals
2. Understanding why the plant is used in the product, and what part or form will give the best result to the consumer
3. Truthful representation of the local uses of the plant in marketing efforts
4. Making sure the environment is not degraded as a result of harvesting botanicals
5. Ensuring that local communities are not negatively impacted by the harvest of the plant
6. Under the spirit and intent of the United Nationssponsored Convention on Biodiversity, compensation to groups and source countries where the materials and ideas were obtained

12.2.3 Sustainable production of wild-harvested products

Acknowledgments
References


Part 12.3
The Herboretum Network for promoting local cultures and biodiversity

Author:

Genevive Bridenne (CIO, Alban Muller Group)


12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 The Herboretum, a true open-air plant laboratory dedicated to plants used in beauty, health, and well-being 

12.3.3 The Herboretum organizes themed visits of four different kinds: school groups, the general public, professionals, and organizations

12.3.4 The Herboretum Network, a unique interface between the phytocosmetic industry and biodiversity

Conclusion


Part 12.4

The advantages and potential contribution of local cultures for carbon footprint reduction

Author:

Jean-Marc Seigneuret (Technical Director, Alban Muller Group)

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 The use of plants in cosmetics

12.4.3 Plant origin

12.4.5 Plant breeding

12.4.6 Farming method

12.4.7 Initial post-harvest processing

Conclusion

Part 12.5

Cosmetic ingredients from plant cell cultures: A new eco-sustainable approach

Author:

Roberto Dal Toso (R&D Manager IRB SpA)

12.5.1 Introduction
12.5.2 Traditional methods of botanical sourcing
12.5.3 Advantages of plant cell cultures: the new alternative
12.5.4 Sustainability of the biotechnological approach
12.5.5 Phenylpropanoids: structure, metabolism, and functions in plants
12.5.6 Standardization, Safety, and New Possibilities
12.5.7 Bioactive properties of PP for cosmetic applications

Conclusion
References


Part 12.6
Eco-responsibility applied to plant extraction

Author:

Alban Muller (President, Alban Muller Group)

12.6.1 Sourcing the plant raw material: Cultivation is key

12.6.2 Transforming the plant into a "drug" to become a cosmetic extract raw material

12.6.3 Extraction

12.6.4 An eco-responsible extract

12.6.5 Certification or not?
12.6.6 The GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) parameter


12.6.7 Eco-responsibility applied to formulation

a. Oily phase
b. Water phase

Part 12.7

The industrial frame: Concrete, green solutions for production and waste management

Author:

Alban Muller (President, Alban Muller Group)

12.7.1 An example of an alternative, eco-friendly process for plant extraction: Zeodration, a unique eco-responsible solution to dry plant extracts


12.7.2 Water and biodiversity gardens
An original innovation: Restoring wetlands in industrial areas


Part 13 Cosmetic Manufacturing

Part 13.0

Manufacture of Cosmetics Section Overview
Meyer R. Rosen

Part 13.1

Cosmetic Manufacturing Processes

Editor: Bruce Victor


Contributors:

Donald S. Buell Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Rose Khosravani Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Doug J. Melenkevitz Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Bruce L. Victor Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
David P. Yacko Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Meyer R. Rosen Interactive Consulting, Inc.

Table of Contents:

13.1 Introduction

13.1.2 Unit Operations

a. Mixing
1. Quality of Mixing
2. Mixing Rheology
3. Heat Transfer
4. Types of Reactors and Their Use in Cosmetics
5. Emulsion Processing EquipmentHeat Transfer

13.1.3.1 Wet SystemsSingle Phase (Miscible) Systems

a. Flow Patterns: Fluids with Low or Medium Viscosity (< 5,000 centipoise)
b. Impellers for Liquids of Low and Medium Viscosity
c. Power Consumption
d. Pumping Capacity and Velocity Head
e. Mixing Time
f. Influence of Vessel Shape
g. Flow Patterns: Fluids of High Viscosity
h. Impeller Types and Mixers for High-Viscosity Fluids

13.1.3.2 Wet Systems - Multiphase Systems

a. The Emulsification Process
b. Orientation of Phases
c. Addition of Surfactant
d. Emulsion Temperature
e. Emulsion Processing Equipment - Mixing
f. High-Shear Mixers and Dispersion Equipment
g. Batch Homogenizers
h. Continuous High-Pressure Homogenizers and Mixers
i. Processing of Water in Silicone Emulsions
j. Liposome Production

13.1.3.3 Wet SystemsLiquidSolid Systems

13.1.4 Filling

13.1.5 Scale-Up

13.1.6 Dry Systems

13.1.7.1 Wet Continuous Process

13.1.7.2 Dry Continuous Processing

Bulk Powder Storage

References


Part 13.2

Cold-Process Emulsification Producing Sub-Micron Dispersions:
Formulation and Aesthetic Enhancement of Cosmetic and OTC Products

Authors:

Michael Ross
James Wilmott
Leading Edge Innovations, LLC
50 Tannery Road, Suite #5
Branchburg, New Jersey 08876

Table of Contents:

13.2.1 Contemporary Cosmetics

a. The Future
b. Properties of Emulsions
c. Issues with Emulsions

13.2.2 Factors Driving the Search for Alternate Approaches

a. Textural Diversity
b. Enhanced Performance
c. Marketplace Confusion
d. Regulatory
e. Resource Availability and Sustainability

13.2.4 Sub-Micron Micelles

a. Benefits of Being Smaller

13.2.5 Methods of Producing Sub-Micron Micelles

13.2.6 Formulating with Sub-Micron Micelles

13.2.7 Manufacturing Benefits

a. Protection of Key Materials
b. Consistency & Reproducibility
c. Reduced Manufacturing Cost
d. Global Consistency

13.2.8 Consumer Benefits

a. Enhanced Product Efficacy
b. Unique Aesthetic Experiences
c. Consistency and Reproducibility
e. Safety
f. Environmental

Conclusion

References

Part 13.3

Intelligent Selection and Manufacture of Natural Extracts

Author:

Satish Nayak, PhD
Kemin Industries,
2100 Maury Street, Des Moines, Iowa 50317, USA.


Table of Contents:

13.3.1 Introduction

13.3.2 Sources of Natural Ingredients

a. Plants
b. Microorganisms
c. Algae

13.2.3 Extraction Technologies

a. Solvent Extraction
b. Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE)
c. Factors affecting efficiency of MAE
d. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE)
e. Factors Affecting Efficiency of UAE
f. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SCFE)
g. Factors affecting efficiency of SCFE

Conclusion
References

Part 14 Packaging

Part 14.1

Emerging Strategies for Sustainable Packaging:
Balancing Materials, Design, and Appearance

Author:

Wylie Royce
Royce Associates

Table of Contents:

14.1.1 Plastic: Material of choice for a generation

14.1.2 Material Options

a. Bio-based resins
b. Bio-based PET
c. Bio-based HDPE
d. Basf eco-flex and ecovio
e. Biodegradable additives
f. Bio-resin design limitations
g. Bio advantages
h. Bio limitations summarized
i. Conventional resins
j. Advantages
k. Limitations

14.1.3 design strategies

a. Choosing the material
b. Bio-resins
c. Bio-resin alloys
d. Conventional resins

14.1.4 sustainability: what makes a package sustainable (and it's not just the package anymore)

a. Measuring sustainable claims
b. The big picture
c. State your message

References

Part 14.2
Aerosol Containment and Delivery

Author:

Harry Wu
Aerosol Connection LLC.

Table of Contents

14.2.1 History
14.2.2 Definition
14.2.3 Principle of Aerosol Technology

14.2.4 Aerosol Systems

a. Homogenous systems
b. Heterogeneous systems
c. Barrier pack systems

14.2.5 Components of an Aerosol Container

a. Three-Piece Tin-Plated Steel
b. Two-Piece Tin-Plated Steel
c. Aluminum
d. Glass
e. Polyethylene Terephthalate

14.2.6 Valve

a. The Male Valve
b. Female Valve

14.2.7 Types of Valves

a. Standard valves
b. Powder valves
c. Spray valves
d. Vapor tap valves
e. Metering valves
f. Crimping

14.2.8 The Actuator

14.2.9 Propellants

a. Hydrocarbon Propellants
b. Dimethyl Ether
c. Hydrofluorocarbons
d. Compressed Gases

14.2.10 Filling

a. Cold Filling
b. Under-the-Cup Filling
c. Pressure Filling
d. Hot Water Bath Testing
e. Headspace

14.2.11 Operation

14.2.12 Alternate Systems

a. Bag-On-Valve
b. Bag-in-a-Can System
c. Sepro Can System
d. Lechner System
e. Piston System
f. Atmos Dispensing System
g. Pump-Activated Systems
1. Dry Spray Dispenser
2. F-Z Finger Pump Foamer
3. Co-Dispensing Systems

14.2.13 Formulating Aerosol Products: The Voice of Experience

a. Aerosol Containers
b. Aerosol Valves
c. The Actuators

14.2.14 Physical & Chemical Properties of the Product

a. Viscosity
b. Suspension System
c. Solvent System
d. pH Value
e. Foam Products
f. Sprayable Products

14.2.15 Stability Testing

References

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