Handbook of Formulating Dermal Applications: A Definitive Practical Guide Nava Dayan (Editor)

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704 pages
December 2016


The conceptualization and formulation of skin care products intended for topical use is a multifaceted and evolving area of science. Formulators must account for myriad skin types, emerging opportunities for product development as well as a very temperamental retail market.

Originally published as “Apply Topically” in 2013 (now out of print), this reissued detailed and comprehensive handbook offers a practical approach to the formulation chemist’s day-to-day endeavors by:
• Addressing the innumerable challenges facing the chemist both in design and at the bench, such as formulating with/for specific properties; formulation, processing and production techniques; sensory and elegancy; stability and preservation; color cosmetics; sunscreens;
• Offering valuable guidance to troubleshooting issues regarding ingredient selection and interaction, regulatory concerns that must be addressed early in development, and the extrapolation of preservative systems,  fragrances, stability and texture aids;
• Exploring the advantages and limitations of raw materials;
• Addressing scale-up and pilot production process and concerns;
• Testing and Measurements Methods.


Table of Contents

Preface ix

Section I Preliminary Considerations and Selection of Raw Materials

1 Pre-formulation Design and Considerations 3
Howard Epstein

2 The Use of Thickeners in Topically Applied Formulations 29
Jed Riemer and Tom Russo

3 The Incorporation of Delivery Systems into Topical Formulations: A Case Study on the Use of Salicylic Acid for Acne Treatment 45
Nripen S. Sharma, Bryan Grossman and Sam Shefer

4 Formulating Skin Care Products with Silicones: Approaches and Strategies 59
Bartley Maxon and Michael Starch

5 The Use of Corn-derived Ingredients in Personal Care Applications 115
Cindy Yu

Section II Formulation, Processing and Production Techniques

6 Emulsions and their Characterization by Texture Profile Analysis 131
Roger L. McMullen, Mihaela Gorcea and Susan Chen

7 High Internal Phase Water-in-oil Emulsions 155
Paul Thau

Introduction 155

8 Manufacturing Topical Formulations: Scale-up from Lab to Pilot Production 167
Michael Kimball

9 Foam: A Unique Delivery Vehicle for Topically Applied Formulations 233
Dov Tamarkin

Section III Testing and Measurements Methods

10 Using Experimental Design to Optimize Formulations 263
Joseph Albanese

11 Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations 287
Hemi Nae

12 Viscosity Measurement for Topically Applied Formulations 346
Daphne Benderly

13 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic Imaging Analysis of Topical Formulations 369
Samuel Gourion-Arsiquaud, Joel Coret, and David J. Moore

Section IV Sensory and Elegancy

14 Creating Appealing Topically Applied Formulations: Linking Physical Aspects to Marketing Psychology 381
J. Mark Chandler

15 The Use of Fragrance in Topically Applied Formulations 397
Steve Herman

Section V Stability and Preservation

16 Stability Testing for Topical Formulation Development 427
Gary R. Kelm

17 Preservation of Topical Formulations: An Historical and Practical Overview 463
Slawomir Paul Cebulski

18 Microbiological Stability for Skin Care Formulations 485
Kausar Malik

Section VI Color Cosmetics

19 Lip Care Product Formulation Strategies 513
Daniel Sango and David Binder

20 Formulation of Nail Care Products 539
Robert W. Sandewicz

Section VII Sunscreens

21 Formulation of Sunscreens in the United States
Patricia Aikens

22 Formulating a Day Cream with SPF: A Case Study 611
Anne Pouillot and Rachel Ametsitsi

Glossary of Terms, by Chapter 635

Author Biographies 655

Index 661

The 22 chapters written by industry experts such as  Roger L. McMullen, Paul Thau, Hemi Nae, Ada Polla, Howard Epstein, Joseph Albanese, Mark Chandler, Steve Herman, Gary Kelm, Patricia Aikens, and Sam Shefer, along with many others, give the reader and user the ultimate handbook on topical product development

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