Chocolate Science and Technology

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Chocolate Science and Technology
by Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Nestle)

Chocolate Science and Technology covers the science and technology of chocolate manufacture from cocoa production, through the manufacturing processes, to the sensory, nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption.


  • cocoa cultivation and production with special attention paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations
  • scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering
  • the chemistry of flavor formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture
  • volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification
  • sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate
  • nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption

There is a focus throughout on those factors that influence the flavor and quality characteristics of the finished chocolate and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement.


Chocolate production and consumption patterns


  • History of cocoa and chocolate
  • World production and consumption of cocoa and chocolate products
  • Fairtrade cocoa and chocolate in modern confectionery industry

Cocoa cultivation, bean composition and chocolate flavour precursor formation and character


  • Cocoa cultivation and practices
  • Bean composition and flavour precursor formation
  • Effect of genotype on cocoa bean flavours
  • Flavour development during post-harvest treatments of cocoa

Industrial chocolate manufacture – processes and factors influencing quality


  • Cocoa processing and technology
  • Chocolate manufacturing processes
  • Tempering, lipid crystallisation and continuous phase character during chocolate manufacture
  • Particle size distribution in chocolate
  • Compositional effects on rheological and textural qualities in chocolate
  • Moisture and chocolate flow
  • Chocolate quality and defects

The chemistry of flavour development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture


  • Influence of bean selection on chocolate flavour quality
  • Effect of roasting
  • Flavour development during chocolate manufacture
  • Key flavour compounds in milk chocolate
  • Key flavour compounds in dark chocolate

Sensory character and flavour perception of chocolates


  • Sensory perception of quality in chocolates
  • Sensory assessment of chocolates
  • Factor influencing chocolate flavour
  • Flavour release and perception of sweetness in chocolate
  • Dynamism of flavour perception in chocolate
  • Retronasal flavour release and perception during chocolate consumption
  • Measurement of flavour release and intensity in chocolates
  • Electronic noses and tongues as online sensors for sensory assessment of chocolates

Nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption


  • Chemistry and composition of cocoa flavonoids
  • Chocolate types and their major nutritional constituents
  • Antioxidant properties and their mechanism of action
  • Effects on endothelial function, blood pressure and cardiovascular system
  • Effects on insulin sensitivity and carcinogenic properties
  • Cocoa, chocolate and aphrodisiac properties

Structure – properties (rheology, texture and melting) relationships in chocolate manufacture


  • Materials and methods
  • Results and discussion
  • Relationships between casson model and ICA recommendations
  • Textural properties
  • Microstructural properties of molten dark chocolate
  • Melting properties of dark chocolate
  • Relationships between rheological, textural and melting properties of dark chocolate

Tempering behaviour during chocolate manufacture: effects of varying product matrices


  • Materials and methods
  • Results and discussion

Tempering and fat crystallisation effects on chocolate quality


  • Materials and methods
  • Results and discussion

Fat bloom formation and development in chocolates


  • Materials and methods
  • Results and discussion

Matrix effects on flavour volatiles character and release in chocolates


  • Materials and methods
  • Results and discussion

Conclusions and industrial applications


  • Structure–properties relationships in chocolate manufacture
  • Tempering behaviour from response surface methodology
  • Effects of tempering and fat crystallisation on microstructure and physical properties
  • FAT bloom formation and development with undertempering
  • Flavour volatiles and matrix effects related to variations in PSD and FAT content
  • Industrial relevance and applications of research findings in this book
  • Recommendations for further research studies



  1. Abbreviations used and their meanings
  2. Abbreviations, acronyms and websites of organizations related to cocoa and chocolate industry
  3. Glossary of chocolate terminologies




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