Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fifth Edition By Gail Vance Civille, B. Thomas Carr

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@ 2016
Reference - 600 Pages - 136 B/W Illustrations


  • Covers all phases of sensory evaluation studies
  • Contains new chapters on advanced sensory processes, quality control testing, advertising claims, and business challenges
  • Outlines basic concepts for tabular and graphical summaries, hypothesis testing, and the design of sensory panels
  • Introduces new time-intensity testing methods
  • Adds new information on mapping and sorting, graph theory, multidimensional scaling, and flash profiling techniques
  • Presents case studies of sensory tests, including project design, hypothesis testing, data analysis, and interpretation of results


This new edition of a bestseller covers all phases of performing sensory evaluation studies, from listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods. Like its predecessors, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fifth Edition gives a clear and concise presentation of practical solutions, accepted methods, standard practices, and some advanced techniques.

The fifth edition is comprehensively reorganized, revised, and updated. Key highlights of this book include:

  • A more intuitive organization
  • Statistical methods adapted to suit a more basic consumer methodology
  • Rearranged material to reflect advances in Internet testing
  • New time-intensity testing methods
  • New chapters on advanced sensory processes, quality control testing, advertising claims, and business challenges
  • New material on mapping and sorting, graph theory, multidimensional scaling, and flash profiling techniques
  • Explanations of theories of integrity, amplitude, and balance and blend
  • Updated appendices for spectrum method scales
  • Updated references

Sensory Evaluation Techniques remains a relevant and flexible resource, providing how-to information for a wide variety of users in industry, government, and academia who need the most current information to conduct effective sensory evaluation and interpretations of results. It also supplies students with the necessary theoretical background in sensory evaluation methods, applications, and implementations.


Table of Contents

Introduction to Sensory Techniques
Development of Sensory Testing
Human Subjects as Instruments
Conducting a Sensory Study

Sensory Attributes and the Way We Perceive Them
Sensory Attributes
Human Senses
Perception at Threshold and Above

Controls for Test Room, Products, and Panel
Environmental Controls
Product Controls
Panelist Controls

Factors Influencing Sensory Verdicts
Physiological Factors
Psychological Factors
Poor Physical Condition

Measuring Responses
Psychophysical Theory

Guidelines for Choice of Technique
Define the Project Objective
Define the Test Objective
Integrate Project Objective and Test Objectives to Construct Test Design

Overall Difference Tests: Does a Sensory Difference Exist between Samples?
Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing
Triangle Test
Duo–Trio Test
Two-out-of-Five Test
Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test)
"A"–"Not A" Test
Difference-from-Control Test
Sequential Tests

Attribute Difference Tests: How Does Attribute X Differ between Samples?
Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs
Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples
Specified Method of Tetrads: Comparing Two Samples on a Specified Attribute Using the Method of Tetrads
Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis––Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs
Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests—Block Designs
Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis: Randomized (Complete) Block Design
Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach—Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design)—Friedman Analysis
Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test—Evaluation by Analysis of Variance

Determining Threshold
Applications of Threshold Determinations

Selection and Training of Panel Members
Panel Development
Selection and Training for Difference Tests
Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing
Panel Performance and Motivation
Appendix 10.1 Prescreening Questionnaires
Appendix 10.2 Panel Leadership Advice

Descriptive Analysis Techniques
Field of Application
Components of Descriptive Analysis
Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Trained Panels
Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Untrained Panels
Application of Descriptive Analysis Panel Data

Spectrum™ Descriptive Analysis Method
Design of the Spectrum Descriptive Method
Myths About the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method
Terminology and Lexicon Development
Combining the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method with Other Measures
Spectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies and So On
Appendix 12.1 Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive Analysis
Appendix 12.2 Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis
Appendix 12.3 Streamlined Approach to Spectrum References
Appendix 12.4 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Product Lexicons
Appendix 12.5 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Examples of Full Product Descriptions
Appendix 12.6 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises

Affective Tests: Consumer Tests and In-House Panel Acceptance Tests
Purpose and Applications
The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests
Choice of Test Location
Affective Methods: Qualitative
Affective Methods: Quantitative
Internet Research
Using Other Sensory Methods to Uncover Insights
Appendix 13.1 Screeners for Consumer Studies—Focus Group, CLT, and Home Use Test (HUT)
Appendix 13.2 Discussion Guide—Group or One-on-One Interviews
Appendix 13.3 Questionnaires for Consumer Studies
Appendix 13.4 Protocol Design for Consumer Studies

Basic Statistical Methods
Summarizing Sensory Data
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
Thurstonian Scaling
Statistical Design of Sensory Panel Studies
Appendix 14.1 Probability

Advanced Statistical Methods
Data Relationships
Preference Mapping
Treatment Structure of an Experimental Design

Guidelines for Reporting Results
Anatomy of the Report
Graphical Presentation of Data
Example Reports (Tables 16.2 through 16.4)

Sensory Evaluation in Quality Control (QC/Sensory)
Attribute Descriptive Methods
Difference-from-Control Methods
In–Out Method

Advanced Consumer Research Techniques
Front End of Innovation
Sequence Mapping
Capturing the Iconic Experience
Consumer Cocreation
Qualitative Use of Kano Methodology
Benefit Perception beyond Liking: Functional, Emotional, and Health and Wellness Benefits
Behavioral Economics
Category Appraisals, Key Drivers Studies and Sensory Segmentation
Ad Claims
Additional Resources

Statistical Tables

Practical Sensory Problems
Scenario 1
Scenario 2
Scenario 3
Scenario 4
Scenario 5
Additional Qualitative References


Author(s) Bio

Gail Vance Civille is president of Sensory Spectrum, Inc., a management consulting firm involved in the sensory evaluation of foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, paper, fabrics, personal care, and other consumer products. She has trained several flavor and texture descriptive profile panels in her work with industry, universities, and government. She has also conducted several workshops and courses in basic sensory evaluation methods as well as in advanced methods and theory. She is a founding member and former chair of the Society of Sensory Professionals, and has published several articles on general sensory methods as well as sophisticated descriptive flavor and texture techniques.

B. Thomas Carr is principal of Carr Consulting, a research consulting firm that provides project management, product evaluation, and statistical support services to the food, beverage, personal care, and home care industries. He has over 30 years of experience in applying statistical techniques to all phases of research on consumer products. He is a member of the US delegation to the ISO TC34/SC12, is involved in the statistical training of scientists, and has been invited by several professional organizations to speak on topics of statistical methods and statistical consulting in industry.

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