Natural Extracts using SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE By Mamata Mukhopadhyay (IIT Mumbai)

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Reprinted in India (c) 2016,   
June 27, 2000 by CRC Press
Reference - 360 Pages

Features

  • Presents a comprehensive collection of information on the subject

  • Details the new products, their attributes, and their characteristics for end users

  • Shows that supercritical extraction using carbon dioxide does not cause pollution or disposal problems

  • Describes how supercritical CO2 extraction facilitates the recovery of bioactive thermo-labile natural molecules

  • Summary

    Synthesizing research from a wide variety of sources, this work offers a convenient guide to a clean, safe, inexpensive, non-toxic, non-polluting solvent that performs better than most conventional solvents. Natural Extracts Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide reviews recent development in the technology and its applications to the food, flavor, fragrance, and pharmaceutical industries. It outlines the many advantages the method has over traditional methods like steam distillation, solvent extraction, and molecular distillation and it supports the popular trend toward the use of natural products in these industries

     

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1
    INTRODUCTION
    Importance of Nature Cure
    Naturopathy
    Natural Extracts
    CO2 as an SCF Solvent
    SCFE Process
    SCFE Applications
    References
    Figure Captions - Chapter 1
    Figures 1.1 - 1.3

    Chapter 2
    FUNDAMENTALS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA
    Process Schemes and Parameters in SCFE
    Thermodynamics of SCF State
    Variability of Density with P and T
    Addition of Cosolvent to SCF Solvent
    Solubility Behavior in SCF Solvent
    Solubility Isotherms and Cross Over Phenomena
    Solubility Isobars
    Pressure and Temperature Effects
    Solvent Capacity and Selectivity
    Cosolvent Effects
    SCF Phase Equilibrium Behavior
    Liquid-Fluid Phase Equilibria
    Solid-Fluid Phase Equilibria
    Polymer-Fluid Phase Equilibria
    Thermodynamic Modelling
    The Equation of State Approach
    Solid-Fluid Equilibrium Calculations
    Mixing Rules
    CS and GC Methods
    Solubility Predictions of Solid from Pure Components Properties
    Liquid-Fluid Equilibrium Calculations Mixing Rules
    Regression of Binary Adjustable Parameters
    Prediction of Multicomponent Data from Binary Interaction Constants
    Prediction of Phase Boundaries
    Mixture Critical Point Calculations
    Multiphase (L-L-V) Calculations
    Solubility Predictions Using Solvent-Cluster Interaction Model
    Solubility Calculations from Correlations
    Selectivity of Natural Molecules from Pure Component Solubilities
    Thermophysical Properties of CO2 Nomenclature
    References
    Figure Captions - Chapter 2
    Figures 2.1 - 2.27 (b)

    Chapter 3
    FUNDAMENTAL TRANSPORT PROCESES IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION
    Transport Properties of SCFs
    Viscosity
    Diffusivity
    Thermal Conductivity
    Interfacial Tension
    Mass Transfer Behavior
    SCFE From Solid Feed
    Mechanism of Transport from Solids
    Stages of Extraction from Different Natural Materials
    SCFF from Liquid Feed
    Fractionation of Liquids by SFC
    Mass Transfer Modelling For SCFE from Solids
    Process Parameters
    Mass Transfer Coefficients
    Effect of Axial Dispersion and Convective Flows
    Shrinking Core Leaching Model
    Heat Transfer in SCFs
    Heat Transfer Coefficients
    Effects of Free Convective Flow
    Heat Transfer Coefficient for Two Phase Flow
    Heat Exchanger Specifications
    Nomenclature
    References
    Figure Captions - Chapter 3
    Figures 3.1(a) - 3.16

    Chapter 4
    FLAVOR AND FRAGRANCE EXTRACTS
    Market Demand
    Natural Essential Oils
    Methods of Recovery of Natural Essential Oils
    Steam Distillation
    Maceration
    Enfleurage
    Cold Expression
    Extraction with Volatile Organic Solvents
    Choice of Solvents
    Purification of Crude Extract
    Vacuum Distillation
    Molecular Distillation
    Liquid-Liquid Fractionation
    Supercritical CO2 Extraction
    Commercial Advantage
    SC CO2 Extracted Floral Fragrance
    Jasmine Fragrance
    Rose Fragrance
    Bitter Orange Flower Fragrance
    Lavender Inflorescence Fragrance
    Marigold Fragrance
    Sandalwood Fragrance
    Vetiver Fragrance
    References
    Figure Captions - Chapter 4
    Figures 4.1 - 4.7(b)

    Chapter 5
    FRUIT EXTRACTS
    Importance of Recovery
    Citrus Oil Recovery During Juice Extraction
    Flavoring Components in Fruits
    Stability and Quality
    CO2 Extraction Processes
    Deterpenation of Citrus Oil by SC CO2
    Dealcoholation of Fruit Juice by SC CO2
    Enzyme Inactivation and Sterilization by +SC CO2
    References
    Figure Captions - Chapter 5
    Figures 5.1 - 5.6

    Chapter 6
    SPICE EXTRACTS
    Importance of Recovery
    Classification of Spices
    Therapeutic Properties of Spices
    Spice Constituents
    Production of Spice Extracts
    SC CO2 Extraction and Fractionation
    Celery Seeds
    Red Chili
    Paprika
    Ginger
    Nutmeg
    Pepper
    Vanilla
    Cardamom
    Fennel, Caraway and Coriander
    Garlic
    Cinnamon
    Market Trends
    References
    Figure Captions - Chapter 6
    Figure 6.1

    Chapter 7
    HERBAL EXTRACTS
    Importance of Recovery
    Herbal Remedies
    Recovery Methods
    Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Constituents
    Anti-inflammatory Constituents
    Anti-Cancerous Alkaloids
    Anti-Carcinogenic Polyphenols
    Medicinal Constituents of Tea Extract
    Fat Regulating Agent
    Therapeutic Oils and Fatty Acids
    References

    Chapter 8
    NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS
    Importance of Recovery
    Classification
    Botanicals with Antioxidative Activity
    Tocopherols as Antioxidants
    Recovery by SC CO2
    Spice and Herbal Extracts as Antioxidants
    Recovery by SC CO2
    Plant Leaf Extracts as Antioxidants
    Flavonoids
    Recovery of Flavonoids
    Carotenoids as Antioxidants
    Recovery of ? Carotene by SC CO2
    Solubility of Antioxidants in SC CO2
    References
    Figure Captions

    - Chapter 9
    NATURAL FOOD COLORS
    Carotenoids as Food Colors
    Recovery of Carotenoids by SC CO2
    Grass
    Orange Peel
    Turmeric
    Paprika
    Red Chili
    Carrot
    Marigold Flowers
    Annatto
    Other Natural Colors
    Anthocyanins as Food Colors
    Classification of Anthocyanins
    Recovery of Anthocyanins
    Commercial Anthocyanin-based Food Colors
    Betacyanins
    References
    Figure Captions -

    Chapter 10
    PLANT AND ANIMAL LIPIDS
    Importance of Recovery
    Recovery Methods
    Separation of FFA from Vegetable Oil by SC CO2
    Fractionation of PUFA from Animal Lipids
    Refining and Deodorisation of Vegetable Oil
    Fractionation of Glycerides
    Extraction of Oil from Oil Bearing Materials
    Sunflower Oil
    Corn Germ Oil
    Soybean Oil
    Olive Husk Oil
    Grape Seed Oil
    Animal Lipids
    Deoiling of Lecithin by SC CO2
    Soya Phospholipids
    Oat Lecithin
    Canola Lecithin
    PC from Deoiled Cottonseed
    PC from Egg Yolk
    Dilipidation and Decholesterification of Food
    Butter
    Egg Yolk Powder
    Fish and Meat Muscles
    References
    Figure Captions

    - Chapter 11
    NATURAL PESTICIDES
    Importance of Recovery
    Bioactivity of Neem
    Neem Based Pesticides
    Azadirachtin-based Formulations
    Commercial Production
    Recovery of Azadirachtin from Neem Kernel
    Conventional Processes
    Supercritical CO2 Extraction
    Pyrethrum Based Pesticides
    Recovery of Pyrethrins
    Nicotine Based Pesticides
    Reovery of Nicotine by SC CO2
    References
    APPENDICES
    Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide
    Definitions of Fatty Acids and Their Compositions in Various Oils
    Some Statistics on Major Vegetable Oils and Oilseeds
    INDEX

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