Ice Cream, 7th Ed. By Goff, H Douglas, Hartel, Richard W

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Ice Cream

Goff, H Douglas, Hartel, Richard W

7th ed. 2013, XIII, 462 p. 128 illus., 75 illus. in color.

 

 

  • The most comprehensive reference book on the technical and scientific aspects of frozen dairy desserts
  • Includes the latest research results
  • Updated information about international regulations on composition and labeling

Ice Cream, 7th Edition focuses on the science and technology of frozen dessert production and quality. It explores the entire scope of the ice cream and frozen dessert industry, from the chemical, physical, engineering and biological principles of the production process to the distribution of the finished product. It is intended for industry personnel from large to small scale processors and suppliers to the industry and for teachers and students in dairy or food science or related disciplines. While it is technical in scope, it also covers much practical knowledge useful to anyone with an interest in frozen dessert production. World-wide production and consumption data, global regulations and, as appropriate, both SI and US units are provided, so as to ensure its relevance to the global frozen dessert industry.

 

This edition has been completely revised from the previous edition, updating technical information on ingredients and equipment and providing the latest research results. Two new chapters on ice cream structure and shelf-life have been added, and much material has been rearranged to improve its presentation. Outstanding in its breadth, depth and coherence, Ice Cream, 7th Edition continues its long tradition as the definitive and authoritative resource for ice cream and frozen dessert producers.

 

H. Douglas Goff is a Professor of Food Science at the University of Guelph, Canada. He has been teaching and conducting research in ice cream science and technology for more than 30 years. 

 

Richard W. Hartel is a Professor of Food Engineering in the Department of Food Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.  He has over 20 years of experience working on the structural attributes of ice cream.

 

 

1 The Ice Cream Industry ........................................................................ 1
Introduction .............................................................................................. 1
The Changing Characteristics of the Industry ......................................... 2
Production and Consumption Trends ................................................... 3
A Brief History of Ice Cream ................................................................... 9
Overview of Ice Cream Composition and Manufacture .......................... 14
References ................................................................................................ 17
 2 Composition and Formulations ............................................................ 19
Introduction .............................................................................................. 19
Descriptions of Commercial Frozen Desserts .......................................... 22
Ice Cream and Related Products .......................................................... 22
Fermented Products ............................................................................. 27
Sherbets and Related Products ............................................................. 28
Ices and Related Products .................................................................... 28
Novelties .............................................................................................. 28
Drinks ................................................................................................... 29
Complexities of Composition .................................................................. 29
Energy Value and Nutrients ..................................................................... 31
Energy (Caloric) Content ..................................................................... 32
Protein Content .................................................................................... 35
Fat Content ........................................................................................... 35
Carbohydrate Content .......................................................................... 36
Mineral Content ................................................................................... 37
Vitamin Content ................................................................................... 38
Palatability and Digestability ............................................................... 38
The Balanced Mix .................................................................................... 38
Nutrition Labeling Based on Composition .............................................. 39
Reference ................................................................................................. 44
 Contentsviii Contents
 3 Mix Ingredients ...................................................................................... 45
Introduction .............................................................................................. 45
Composition of Milk ................................................................................ 45
Fat Ingredients ......................................................................................... 51
Milk Fat ................................................................................................ 52
Nondairy Fats ....................................................................................... 54
Fat Replacers ........................................................................................ 57
Milk Solids-Not-Fat/Protein Ingredients ................................................. 60
Concentrated Milks .............................................................................. 61
Dried Skim and Whole Milk ................................................................ 62
Whey Products ..................................................................................... 62
Milk Powder Blends............................................................................. 63
Other Milk Solids-Not-Fat Ingredients ................................................ 64
Nondairy Protein Ingredients ............................................................... 65
Sources of Water ...................................................................................... 65
Potable Water ....................................................................................... 65
Milk, Skim Milk, and Buttermilk ........................................................ 66
Sweeteners ............................................................................................... 66
Sucrose: Crystalline and Liquid ........................................................... 68
Corn Sweeteners .................................................................................. 69
Maple and Brown Sugars ..................................................................... 71
Honey ................................................................................................... 71
Sugar Alcohols ..................................................................................... 72
Nonnutritive Sweeteners ...................................................................... 73
Stabilizers ................................................................................................. 75
Characteristics of Individual Stabilizer Ingredients ............................. 78
Ice Structuring Proteins ........................................................................ 80
Propylene Glycol Monoesters .............................................................. 81
Emulsifiers ............................................................................................... 82
Characteristics of Individual Emulsifier Ingredients ........................... 83
Mineral Salts ........................................................................................ 84
References ................................................................................................ 85
 4 Flavoring and Coloring Materials ........................................................ 89
Introduction .............................................................................................. 89
Vanilla ...................................................................................................... 93
Natural Vanilla Flavor .......................................................................... 93
Consistency in Vanilla Quality ............................................................. 94
Artificial Vanilla Flavor ....................................................................... 95
Vanilla Ice Cream ................................................................................. 95
Chocolate and Cocoa ............................................................................... 96
Processing Cocoa Beans ...................................................................... 97
Chocolate Ice Cream ............................................................................ 99
Preparing Chocolate Syrup .................................................................. 101
Chocolate Confections ......................................................................... 102
Flavoring Ingredients ............................................................................... 103
Color in Frozen Desserts .......................................................................... 105
Particulate Inclusions ............................................................................... 106
Fruits .................................................................................................... 106
Nuts ...................................................................................................... 112
Bakery Pieces ....................................................................................... 114
Candy Pieces ........................................................................................ 114
Variegates ................................................................................................. 115
Ice Cream with Complex Flavors ............................................................ 115
Defects in Flavoring Systems .................................................................. 118
References ................................................................................................ 119
 5 Mix Processing and Properties ............................................................. 121
Introduction .............................................................................................. 121
Mix Processing ......................................................................................... 121
Combining the Ingredients ................................................................... 122
Pasteurization ....................................................................................... 126
Homogenization ................................................................................... 134
Aging .................................................................................................... 139
Packaging for Sale ............................................................................... 140
Flavoring .............................................................................................. 140
Physical Properties of Mixes.................................................................... 141
Mix Stability ........................................................................................ 142
Density ................................................................................................. 143
Acidity of Mixes .................................................................................. 143
Mix Viscosity ....................................................................................... 144
Interfacial Characteristics .................................................................... 145
Freezing Point ...................................................................................... 147
Specific Heat ........................................................................................ 149
Ice Cream Defects Originating from Mix Composition .......................... 149
References ................................................................................................ 153
 6 Calculation of Ice Cream Mixes ........................................................... 155
Introduction .............................................................................................. 155
Mix Formulation Software ....................................................................... 155
Mathematical Processes most Frequently Used ....................................... 156
Standardizing Milk and Cream ................................................................ 157
Algebraic Mass Balance ...................................................................... 157
Use of the Pearson Square for Standardizing Cream 
and Other Milk Products ...................................................................... 158
Mix Formulation Calculations ................................................................. 159
Mix Decisions ...................................................................................... 160
Simple Mixes ....................................................................................... 161
Complex Mixes .................................................................................... 162
Restandardizing Ice Cream Mixes ....................................................... 178
Freezing Point Depression Calculations .................................................. 179
Freezing Point Depression of a Mix .................................................... 181
Freezing Curves ................................................................................... 183
Overrun Calculations ............................................................................... 184
Determining Manufacturing Overrun by Volume, 
no Particulates ...................................................................................... 185
Determining Manufacturing Overrun by Volume, 
with Particulates ................................................................................... 187
Determining Package Overrun by Weight, no Particulates .................. 187
Determining Mix Density .................................................................... 189
Determining Target Package Weights, no Particulates ........................ 189
Determining Target Package Weights, with Particulates ..................... 190
References ................................................................................................ 191
 7 Freezing and Refrigeration ................................................................... 193
Introduction .............................................................................................. 193
General Freezing Operations ................................................................... 193
Types of Freezers ..................................................................................... 195
The Continuous Freezer ........................................................................... 196
Operating the Continuous Freezer ....................................................... 201
Freezer Controls ................................................................................... 202
Commercial Freezers ........................................................................... 206
Sanitary Design of Ice Cream Freezers ............................................... 207
Start-Up and Shut Down of a Continuous Freezer .............................. 208
Freezer Outlet/Ice Cream Piping ......................................................... 209
Continuous Ingredient Feeders ............................................................ 210
The Batch Freezer .................................................................................... 212
Operation of the Batch Freezer ............................................................ 212
Filling Containers from a Batch Freezer .............................................. 217
Other Freezer Types ................................................................................. 218
Cryogenically Frozen Products ............................................................ 218
Shaving Devices ................................................................................... 219
Consumer-Frozen Shelf Stable Products ............................................. 220
Refrigeration ............................................................................................ 220
Refrigeration Principles ........................................................................... 220
Types of Refrigerants ............................................................................... 223
Primary Refrigerants ............................................................................ 223
Secondary Refrigerants ........................................................................ 226
Combined Refrigeration ....................................................................... 228
Mechanical Refrigeration ......................................................................... 228
Operating Principles ............................................................................. 229
Evaporator Systems.............................................................................. 233
Defrosting Methods ............................................................................. 234
Compressors ......................................................................................... 234
Condensers ........................................................................................... 237
Operating Precautions .......................................................................... 239
Multistage Refrigeration Systems ........................................................ 241
Calculation of Refrigeration Loads .......................................................... 243
Terms Used in Refrigeration .................................................................... 247
References ................................................................................................ 247
 8 Soft-Frozen Dairy Desserts ................................................................... 249
Introduction .............................................................................................. 249
Soft-Serve Mix Composition ................................................................... 250
Freezers for Soft-Serve and Shakes ......................................................... 253
Cleaning and Sanitizing Soft-Serve Freezers........................................... 257
The Heat Treatment Freezer .................................................................... 259
Soft-Serve Blended Products ................................................................... 260
Reference ................................................................................................. 260
 9 Novelty Products and Ice Cream Cakes ............................................... 261
Introduction .............................................................................................. 261
Cup, Cone, and Sandwich Products ......................................................... 263
Molded Products ...................................................................................... 267
Ice and Fudge Stick Items .................................................................... 273
Enrobing ................................................................................................... 274
Chocolate Coatings .............................................................................. 274
Application of Coatings ....................................................................... 276
Extruded Products .................................................................................... 277
Ice Cream Cakes and Multi-Portion Products ......................................... 281
Reference ................................................................................................. 287
10 Packaging, Hardening, and Shipping ................................................... 289
Considering the Package .......................................................................... 289
The Packaging Operation ......................................................................... 291
Bulk Packaging .................................................................................... 291
Packaging for Direct Sale to Consumers ............................................. 293
Economy in Packaging Operations ...................................................... 296
The Hardening Process ............................................................................ 299
Changes During Hardening .................................................................. 299
Factors Affecting Hardening Time ...................................................... 301
Types of Hardening Facilities .............................................................. 303
Precautions to Observe in the Operation of Hardening 
and Storage Rooms .............................................................................. 305
Handling, Storing, and Shipping .............................................................. 307
Distribution Systems ............................................................................ 310
Shipping with Dry Ice .......................................................................... 311
References ................................................................................................ 312
11 Ice Cream Structure .............................................................................. 313
Introduction .............................................................................................. 313
Microstructural Elements ......................................................................... 317
Serum Phase ......................................................................................... 317
Ice Crystals ........................................................................................... 320xii Contents
Destabilization of the Fat Emulsion ..................................................... 325
Air Cells ............................................................................................... 333
Hydrocolloid Phase Behavior .............................................................. 336
Effects of Structure on Physical Properties .............................................. 339
Thermal Diffusivity .............................................................................. 341
Meltdown Properties ............................................................................ 342
Rheological/Mechanical Properties ..................................................... 345
Conclusion ............................................................................................... 348
References ................................................................................................ 348
12 Shelf Life ................................................................................................. 353
Ice Cream Storage and Distribution ......................................................... 353
Mechanisms for End of Shelf Life ........................................................... 354
Ice Recrystallization ............................................................................. 355
Air Coarsening ..................................................................................... 368
Shrinkage ............................................................................................. 370
Lactose Crystallization and Sandiness ................................................. 373
Gumminess .......................................................................................... 374
Flavor ................................................................................................... 375
Conclusion ............................................................................................... 375
References ................................................................................................ 376
13 Cleaning and Sanitizing for Microbiological Quality and Safety ...... 379
Introduction .............................................................................................. 379
Planning for Product Safety ..................................................................... 380
Microbiological Quality and Safety ......................................................... 383
Microbiological Standards ................................................................... 383
Incidents of Pathogenic Contaminations in Ice Cream ........................ 384
Raw Ingredients ................................................................................... 386
Processing and Environmental Considerations .................................... 387
Recalls .................................................................................................. 389
Cleaning Procedures ................................................................................ 390
Functions of Detergents in the Dairy ................................................... 391
Major Detergent Components and Their Functions ............................. 392
Cleaning Methods ................................................................................ 393
Sanitizing Procedures ............................................................................... 396
Controlling and Monitoring Plant Sanitation ....................................... 397
Sanitary Environment .......................................................................... 398
Hygienic Personnel .................................................................................. 399
References ................................................................................................ 400
14 Analyzing Frozen Desserts .................................................................... 403
Introduction .............................................................................................. 403
Chemical Analyses ................................................................................... 404
Fat ........................................................................................................ 404
Protein .................................................................................................. 405
Moisture and Total Solids .................................................................... 406i
Lactose and Minerals ........................................................................... 406
Multicomponent Instrumental Methods ............................................... 407
Acidity .................................................................................................. 407
Other Tests for Chemical Components ................................................ 408
Microbiological Analyses ........................................................................ 409
Sampling for Microbiological Tests ..................................................... 409
Microbiological Test Methods ............................................................. 410
Physical Analyses .................................................................................... 413
Fat Globule Size Distributions in Mix ................................................. 413
Freezing Point of Mix .......................................................................... 414
Viscosity of Mixes ............................................................................... 414
Density of Mixes .................................................................................. 416
Adsorbed Protein to Fat Globules in Mix ............................................ 416
Phase Separation in Mix ...................................................................... 416
Overrun and Volume in Ice Cream ...................................................... 417
Hardness of Ice Cream ......................................................................... 417
Fat Destabilization in Ice Cream .......................................................... 418
Meltdown of Ice Cream ....................................................................... 420
Ice Crystal and Air Bubble Size Distributions in Ice Cream ............... 423
Sensory Analyses ..................................................................................... 423
Considerations for Effective Sensory Evaluation 
of Frozen Desserts ................................................................................ 425
Sensory Methods .................................................................................. 429
The ADSA Scoring System and Quality Defect Recognition ............. 431
References ................................................................................................ 435
15 Formulations for Specialty Products .................................................... 437
Introduction .............................................................................................. 437
Light, Low-Fat, and Nonfat Formulations ............................................... 437
Flavoring Low-fat and Nonfat Frozen Desserts ................................... 439
No-Sugar-Added and Sugar-Free Formulations ...................................... 440
Reduced-Lactose and Lactose-Free Ice Cream ........................................ 441
Gelato ....................................................................................................... 442
Frozen Yogurt ........................................................................................... 443
Sherbet ..................................................................................................... 444
The Composition of Sherbet ................................................................ 445
Defects ................................................................................................. 448
Water Ice .................................................................................................. 449
Sorbet ....................................................................................................... 450
Non-dairy Frozen Desserts ...................................................................... 451
References ................................................................................................ 452
Index ................................................................................................................ 455 

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