Herbal Drug Technology (Second Edition) By S S Agrawal

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Herbal Drug Technology (Second Edition)

By S S Agrawal, M Paridhavi

 About the Book

The second edition of the textbook Herbal Drug Technology, based on the curriculum of various universities, caters to both bachelor''s and master''s courses in pharmacy and allied sciences. It contains detailed information on Indian systems of medicine, herbal therapeutics, crude drugs and medicinal botany.
New to this edition are topics such as herbal cosmetics, nutraceuticals, chemotaxonomy, recent changes in in vivo anticancer screening models and screening of cardiac glycosides, and methods of literature search and patenting of herbal drugs.

Special features:

  • Designed according to the curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in pharmacy of various universities in India and abroad
  • Incorporates recent advances in technology
  • Provides a comparative study of dosage forms in ayurveda and modern medicine
  • Includes a detailed analysis of more than 60 phytopharmaceuticals
  • Discusses standardization of herbal drugs—WHO protocol, different methods used for standardization, quality control standards for herbal extracts and validation of herbal products

Table of Contents

Second Message
First Message 
Foreword 
Preface to the Second Edition 
Preface to the First Edition
1 Introduction to Medicinal Plants
1.1 Illustrative Examples of Plants Used as Drugs
2 Indian Systems of Medicine
2.1 Ayurveda
2.2 Unani System of Medicine
2.3 Homeopathic System of Medicine
2.4 Siddha
2.5 Yoga and Naturopathy
3 Herbal Therapeutics: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century 
3.1 The Ancient World 
3.2 The World of Greece and Rome 
3.3 The Long Interregnum 
3.4 Twentieth Century 
3.5 Prospects for the Twenty-first Century 
4 Essentials of Crude Drugs 
5 Medicinal Botany 
5.1 Plant Taxonomy 
5.2 Morphological Considerations of Crude Drugs 
5.3 General Considerations 
5.4 Histology 
6 In vitro Culture of Medicinal Plants: Tissue Culture 
6.1 Requirements for Plant Tissue Culture 
6.2 Setting Up a Tissue Culture Lab 
6.3 Basic Laboratory Procedures 
6.4 Processing of Plant Tissue Culture 
6.5 Growth Profile 
6.6 Growth Measurement 
6.7 Plant Tissue Culture Methods 
6.8 Root Culture 
6.9 Shoot Tip Culture and Leaf Culture 
6.10 Culture of Flowers, Ovaries and Ovules 
6.11 Seed Culture 
6.12 Nucellus Culture 
6.13 Embryo Culture 
6.14 Anther and Pollen Culture 
6.15 Callus Culture 
6.16 Types of Tissue Culture 
6.17 Tissue Culture of Medicinal Plants 
6.18 Applications of Plant Tissue Culture 
7 Systematic Examination of Powdered Drugs 
7.1 Examination of Organised Drugs 
7.2 Examination of Unorganised Drugs 
8.1 Application of Chromatography and Spectroscopy in Plant Drug Analysis
8.1 Chromatography 
8.2 Infrared Spectroscopy 
8.3 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 
8.4 Differential Scanning Calorimeter 
8.5 NMR Spectroscopy
8.6 Mass Spectroscopy 
8.7 Spectral Properties of Herbal Products 
8.2 Extraction, Isolation and Analysis of Phytopharmaceuticals 
8.8 Infusion 
8.9 Decoction 
8.10 Digestion 
8.11 Maceration 
8.12 Percolation 
8.13 Successive Solvent Extraction 
8.14 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 
8.15 Steam Distillation 
8.16 Headspace Techniques 
8.17 Sepbox 
8.18 Selection of a Suitable Extraction Process 
8.19 Carbohydrates 
8.20 Proteins 
8.21 Alkaloids 
8.22 Glycosides 
8.23 Carotenoids 
8.24 Tannins 
8.25 Oleoresins 
8.26 Essential Oils 
9 Screening Methods Used for Herbal Drugs 
9.1 Introduction 
9.2 Screening Methods for Anti-fertility Agents 
9.3 Screening Methods for Anterior Pituitary Hormones 
9.4 Screening Methods for Anti-diabetic Drugs 
9.5 Screening Methods for Thyroid and Anti-thyroid Drugs 
9.6 Estimation of Various Hormones Involved in Reproduction by ELISA 
9.7 Cardiovascular Screening Methods 
9.8 Selection of an Animal Model for Cardiovascular Screening 
9.9 Screening Methods for Anti-anginal Drugs 
9.10 Screening Methods for Anti-hypertensive Drugs 
9.11 Indirect Blood Pressure or Non-Invasive Blood Pressure (NIBP) 
9.12 Screening Methods for Anti-arrhythmic Drugs 
9.13 Screening Methods for Cardiac Glycosides 
9.14 Langendorff Heart System 
9.15 Screening Methods for Diuretics 
9.16 Neuropharmacology 
9.17 Screening of Anti-epileptic Agents from Herbal Sources 
9.18 Screening Methods for Analgesic Activity 
9.19 Screening of Herbal Drugs for Antipyretic Activity 
9.20 Screening Methods for Anti-cataract Agents 
9.21 Screening Methods for Anti-glaucoma Agents 
9.22 Screening of Herbal Drugs for Anti-cancer Activity 
9.23 Screening Methods for Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Agents
9.24 Screening Methods for Anti-inflammatory Drugs 
9.25 Screening Methods for Anti-ulcer Drugs 
9.26 Screening of Anti-asthmatic Drugs 
9.27 Screening Methods for Anti-lithiotic Drugs 
9.28 Development and Evaluation of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems (TDDS) of Herbal Drugs 
9.29 Development and Evaluation of Intra-uterine Contraceptive Devices (IUCDs) for Herbal Drugs 
9.30 Toxicity Studies 
9.31 Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) 
9.32 Clinical Trials 
10 Standardisation of Herbal Drugs 
10.1 Importance of Standardisation and Problems Involved in the Standardisation of Herbs 
10.2 Standardisation of Single Drugs and Compound Formulations 
10.3 WHO Guidelines for Quality Standardised Herbal Formulations 
10.4 Estimation of the Parameter Limits Used for Standardisation 
10.5 Herbal Extracts 
11 Herbal Formulations: A Comparative Study of Ayurvedic and Modern Dosage Forms 
11.1 Classification 
11.2 General Considerations 
11.3 Different Stages of Herbal Formulation 
11.4 Dosage Forms 
12 Herbal Cosmetics 
12.1 Source, Historical Background and Present Status 
12.2 Raw Materials: Oils, Waxes, Gums, Hydrophillic Colloids, Colours, Perfumes, Protective Agents, Bleaching Agents, Preservatives, Antioxidants and Other Auxillary Agents 
12.3 Formulation Aspects of Incorporating Herbal Extracts in Various Preparations 
13 Nutraceuticals: A Modern Approach 
13.1 Introduction and Classification 
13.2 Nutraceuticals and Diseases
13.3 Immune Boosters and Anti-inflammatory Agents 
13.4 Inflammatory Disorders 
13.5 Degenerative Diseases 
13.6 Current Status and Legal Aspects 
14 Chemotaxonomy 
14.1 Chemotaxonomy 
14.2 Origin and Chronological Development of Chemotaxonomy (History) 
14.3 Phytoconstituents Useful in Chemotaxonomy 
14.4 Plant Serology and Serotaxonomy 
14.5 Chemotaxonomy in Lower Plants 
14.6 Prospects and Problems of Chemotaxonomy 
15 The Role of Literature Search in Medicinal Plant Research 
15.1 Definition 
15.2 Purpose of Literature Search 
15.3 The Internet as an Information Search Tool in Phytopharmacological Research 
15.4 Planning a Search 
15.5 Electronic Databases 
15.6 Some Plant-related Databases 
15.7 Searching Techniques 
16 Patenting of Herbal Drugs 
16.1 Definition 
16.2 Benefits of Patent Protection 
16.3 Patent Application 
16.4 Plant Breeders’ Rights 
16.5 Important Points to be Kept in Mind while Drafting and Filing a Patent 
16.6 Indian and International Patent Laws and Proposed Amendments 
16.7 The Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) 
Glossary 758
Glossary of Botanical Terms 761
Glossary of Medical Terms 769
Bibliography 777
Index 791
List of Plates
Plate 1Callus culture
Plate 1Plantlets formed from callus culture
Plate 2 Shoot elongation and rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots
Plate 3 Plantlets acclimatised to greenhouse conditions
Plate 4 Immobilised beads

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