Drugs of Natural Origin: A Treatise of Pharmacognosy, Sixth Revised Edition
Drugs of Natural Origin: A Treatise of Pharmacognosy, Sixth Revised Edition
Drugs of Natural Origin provides a multidisciplinary approach suitable for those working in the area of natural product development. It brings together research on the sustainable use of natural products in the development of new drugs, scientifically based herbal remedies, and environmentally adapted biomolecules.
During evolution, molecules evolved to perform specific functions in nature. By understanding their natural function, we can develop ways to make use of these bioactive substances a potential new drug candidates and also as pharmacological tools, intermediates, or templates for the synthesis of novel drugs. This book examines terrestrial and marine bioactive substances drawn from plant, microbial, and animal origin. Their occurrence, biosynthesis, isolation, chemistry, and medical use are described, together with basic research strategies.
Development in the field of natural products of medical importance continues to expand. Since the publication of the 5th edition of this book, five years ago, new concepts such as chemo- and bioinformatics, phylogenetics and systems biology with the new "omics" techniques (genomics, proteomics and metabolomics) have emerged. Herbal remedies have become subject to more rigid legislation aiming to improve their quality and efficacy, both as over-the-counter preparations for self-medication and as constituents of conventional drugs. This development is reflected in a substantial revision and expansion of the book. This edition also describes many new drugs marketed since the publication of the previous edition.
Students and professors in the area of natural product research,as well as complementary disciplines like medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology will find much relevant information in this books.
Table of Contents
Definitions The history of natural products in medicine Natural products as modern drugs Production of drugs based on natural products The role of natural products in drug discovery Plants used in traditional medicine Ethnopharmacology Natural products from marine organisms Combinatorial biosynthesis Screening of randomly chosen organisms Chemoinformatics and phylogenetics Systems biology Application of the systemic biology approach to the study of naturl products used in medicine Pharmacognosy as a research subject Further reading Plant derived Crude drugs and Herbal Remedies Nomenclature Production of crude drugs from medicinal plants Cultivation of medicinal plants Propagation of plants Plant breeding Collecting and harvesting medicinal plants Preservation of plant material Storage of crude drugs Quality control of crude drugs Sterilization of crude drugs Preparations of crude drugs Grinding of crude drugs Herbal "Teas" Extracts Herbal remedies Definitions and trade regulations Side effects Interactions Information sources Isolation of pure compounds from extracts of crude drugs and other organisms Isolation of compounds with known properties Bioassay-guided isolation Industrial high-throughput screening of extracts Further reading Biotechnological Drug Production Production of Antibiotics The growth curve of microorganisms Energy metabolism and production of metabolites in microorganisms Technical aspects on the producton of antibiotics Plant tissue and cell culture (Plant Biotechnology) Callus cultures Suspension cultures Organ cultures and regeneration of plants Environmental factors of importance for plant tissue and cell culture Tissue and cell culture in plant breeding Industrial production of natural products by plant tissue and cell cultures Future prospects for plant biotechnology in the production of drugs Further reading Formation of Pharmacologically Active Compounds in Plants – Biosynthesis Photosynthesis Light reactions and dark reactions Dark reactions Photorespiration C3 Plants CAM and C4 plants Biosynthetic pathways Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle Investigation of biosynthetic pathways Transporters of secondary metabolites Classification of natural products Further reading Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Gums and mucilages Reduction products of carbohydrates: sugar alcohols 5 Natural products related to carbohydrates Glycosides Aminoglycoside antibiotics Acarbose Ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH Further reading Natural Products Derived Biosynthetically from Shikimic Acid Shikimic acid Localization of the shikimic acid pathway The enzymes of the shikimic acid pathway Biosynthesis of shikimic acid Gallic acid and tannins The aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan Biosynthesis of tyrosine and phenylalanine Biosynthesis of tryptophan Phenylpropanes Typical phenylpropanes Adaptogens Coumarins and furanocoumarins Substances formed from phenylpropanes by shortening of the side-chain Further reading Natural Products Derived Biosynthetically from Acetate The acylpolymalonate pathway Fatty acids Saturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids Other derivatives of fatty acids Fats and waxes Fats Waxes Phospholipids Eicasonoids Prostaglandins Thromboxanes Leukotrienes Lipstatin Polyketides Polyketides derived from acetate or propionate Macrolides Erythromycins Avermectins Spiramycins Polyene macrolide antibiotics Epothilones Griseofulvin Aflatoxins Mevastatin and lovastatin Leptospermone and Nitisinone Mupirocin Tetracyclines Anthracyclines Enediynes Anthraquinones Polyketides of mixed biogenetic origin Flavonoids Kava pyrones Flavonolignans Mycophenolic acid The ansamycin group of antibiotics Rapamycin Tacrolimus (FK-506) Rotenoids Khellin Sodium cromoglycate Further reading The isopentenyl diphosphate pathway Isoprenoids Mevalonic acid and isopentenyl diphosphate The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids Monoterpenes Biosynthesis of monoterpenes Hydrocarbons Alcohols Aldehydes Ketones Phenols Iridoids and secoiridoids Other oxidized monoterpenes Sesquiterpenes Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes Diterpenes Biosynthesis of diterpenes Triterpenes and steroids Biosynthesis of triterpenes and steroids Biosynthesis of pentacyclic triterpenes Biosynthesis of tetracyclic triterpenes and steroids 38 Triterpenes Saponins Modified triterpenes Steroidal hormones Cardiac glycosides Glycosides from Digitalis purpurea Glycosides from Digitalis lananta Other cardiac glycosides Vitamin D Tetraterpenes Biosynthesis of tetraterpenes Further reading Amino acids 2-oxoglutaric acid group Pyruvic acid group Oxalacetic acid group Serine group Histidine Aromatic amino acids Essential amino acids Toxic, non-proteinogenic amino acids Further reading Natural Products Derived Biosynthetically from Amino Acids Peptides and proteins Symbols for the amino acids in primary structures of peptides and proteins Proteolytic enzymes Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIP toxins) Lectins Amanita toxins Snake venoms Lizard toxins Ziconotide Mistletoe toxins Cyclotides Non-ribosomal polypeptides Glycopeptide antibiotics Streptogramin antibiotics â-Lactam antibiotics Other â-lactams Vitamines derived from amino acids Cyanogenic glycosides Glucosinolates (mustard-oil glycosides) Further reading Alkaloids General aspects Amino alkaloids Pyridine and piperidine alkaloids Tropane alkaloids Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Senecio alkaloids) Quinolizidine alkaloids (Lupinus alkaloids) Isoquinoline alkaloids Protoberberine alkaloids Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids Bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids Amaryllidaceae alkaloids Benzophenanthridine alkaloids Terpenoid tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids Indole alkaloids Simple indole alkaloids Terpenoid indole alkaloids Quinoline alkaloids Imidazole alkaloids Steroidal alkaloids Aconitum alkaloids Guanidinium alkaloids Further reading Purines and Pyrimidines Purine derivatives Biosynthesis ATP Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) Coenzyme A (CoA) Guanosine 5´-triphosphate (GTP) Riboflavin Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrofolate (THF, Vitamin B9) Caffeine, theobromine and theophylline Pyrimidine derivatives Uridine triphosphate (UTP) Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) Cytarabine (Ara-C) Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Further reading Appendix I Index