Distillation Control An Engineering Perspective by Cecil L. Smith

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Distillation Control
An Engineering Perspective
by Cecil L. Smith

Distillation Control enables readers to control distillation columns by approaching the subject from a process to develop, analyze, and troubleshoot all aspects of column controls.

Coverage includes:

Composition control
Pressure control and condensers
Reboilers and feed preheaters
Application of feedforward
Unit optimization
Complex towers
In addition to its detailed explanations, this book is filled with clear diagrams and illustrations that clarify complex concepts and guide readers through multi-step procedures.

Contents 1 Principles


Separation Processes
Total Material Balance
Reflux and Boilup Ratios
Total Material Balance around Condenser
Total Material Balance around Reboiler
Component Material Balances
Energy and the Separation Factor
Multicomponent Distillation
Stage-by-Stage Separation Model
Formulation of the Control Problem
Tower Internals
Flooding
Tray Hydraulics
Inverse Response in Bottoms Level
Composition Dynamics
2 Composition Control


Product Specifications
Columns in Series
Composition Analyzers
Temperature
Distillate Composition Control: Constant Boilup
Distillate Composition Control: Constant Bottoms Flow
Operating Lines
Temperature Profiles
Feed Composition Disturbances
Bottoms Composition Control
Propagation of Variance in Level Control Configurations
Level Control in Direct Material Balance Configurations
3 Pressure Control and Condensers


Pressure Control
Once-Through Heat Transfer Processes
Water-Cooled Condensers
Flooded Condensers
Air-Cooled Condensers
Partial Condensers
Atmospheric Towers
Vacuum Towers
Floating Pressure/Pressure Minimization
4 Reboilers and Feed Preheaters


Types of Reboilers
Steam-Heated Reboilers
Hot Oil
Fired Heaters
Feed Preheater
Economizer
5 Applying Feedforward


Feed Flow and Composition
Internal Reflux Control
Extreme Feedforward
Feedforward for Bottoms Level
Feedforward for Column Pressure
Product Compositions
6 Unit Optimization


Energy and Separation
Optimization of a Column
Constraints in Distillation Columns
Control Configurations for Single Constraint
Control Configurations for Multiple Constraints
7 Double-End Composition Control


Defining the Problem
Options for Composition Control
Relative Gain
Relative Gains from Open Loop Sensitivities
Relative Gains for Other Configurations
Ratios for Manipulated Variables
Effect of Operating Objectives
MPC
8 Complex Towers


Heat Integration
Side Heater/Side Cooler
Sidestreams
Withdrawing a Liquid Sidestream
Withdrawing a Vapor Sidestream
Composition Control in Sidestream Towers
Index


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