Bread Making Improving Quality Second edition edited by Stanley P. Cauvain

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Bread Making
Improving Quality
Second edition
edited by Stanley P. Cauvain

This new Second edition of Bread Making: Improving Quality is an essential handbook for the bakery technologist and for other professionals in the bread making industry.

Part 1 addresses the impacts of wheat and flour quality on bread, covering topics such as wheat chemistry, wheat starch structure, grain quality assessment, milling and wheat breeding.

Part 2 covers dough development and bread ingredients, with chapters on dough aeration and rheology, the use of redox agents and enzymes in breadmaking and water control, among other topics.

Part 3   focuses on bread sensory quality, shelf life and safety. Topics covered include bread aroma, staling and contamination.

Part 4 covers bread products such as high fibre breads, those made from partially baked and frozen dough and those made from non-wheat flours.


1. Introduction to breadmaking


  • Wheat and its special properties
  • Converting wheat to flour
  • Food safety and nutrition
  • Making bread
  • Functional ingredients
  • 2. Breadmaking: an overview


    • Bread dough development
    • Breadmaking processes
    • What determines bread quality?
    • Dough mixing and processing
    • Cell creation during mixing
    • Dough processing
    • Gas bubble control during dough processing
    • Proving and baking

    Part 1: Wheat and Flour Quality

    3. The chemistry and biochemistry of wheat


    • The structure and composition of the wheat kernel
    • Wheat carbohydrates
    • Wheat proteins
    • Wheat lipids
    • Wheat enzymes and their roles
    • Pigments and their structures
    • Recent developments in wheat utilization

    4. Techniques for analyzing wheat proteins


    • Separation methods
    • Analysing molecular properties
    • Rheological measurements
    • Infrared spectroscopy
    • NMR spectroscopy
    • Electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    5. Wheat proteins and bread quality


    • Cereal proteins and breadmaking quality
    • Prolamin structure and bread quality
    • Soluble proteins, xylanase inhibitors and bread quality
    • Detergent-solubilised proteins and bread quality
    • Genomics and the wheat grain proteome

    6. Wheat starch structure and bread quality


    • Starch properties and baking performance
    • Physico-chemical properties of starch in relation to the baking process
    • Starch structure and chemical composition

    7. Assessing grain quality


    • The importance of quality assessment at harvest
    • The grain chain
    • Analysis during breeding to achieve quality targets
    • Analysis on-farm to achieve quality targets
    • Sampling aims and methods
    • Analysis at grain receival to achieve quality targets
    • Analysis during storage and transport to achieve quality targets
    • Analysis in buying and blending to achieve flour-quality targets

    8. Milling and flour quality


    • Flour milling
    • Recent developments in flour milling
    • Flour milling and flour quality
    • Milling research

    9. Wheat breeding and quality evaluation in the US


    • Wheat classification
    • Selection of wheat varieties with desired characteristics

    10. Improving wheat protein quality for breadmaking: The role of biotechnology


    • Wheat gluten proteins and dough strength
    • HMW subunits and bread quality
    • The genetic transformation of wheat
    • Manipulating HMW subunit composition and dough properties
    • Prospects for using GM to improve wheat processing quality

    11. Novel approaches to modify wheat flour processing characteristics and health attributes: from genetics to food technology


    • Exploiting natural variation in gluten proteins to modify wheat quality
    • Genetic modification of wheat
    • Use of non-wheat flours to modify bread quality attributes
    • Modifications to reduce wheat allergy and intolerance

    Part 2: Dough Development and Particular Bread Ingredients

    12. Bread aeration and dough rheology: an introduction


    • History of bread aeration studies
    • History of dough rheology studies
    • Methods for studying bread aeration and dough rheology
    • Breadmaking – a series of aeration/rheology interactions
    • The future of bread aeration and rheology research

    13. The molecular basis of bread dough rheology


    • Factors affecting dough rheology
    • Polymer networks in doughs
    • The molecular mechanism of energy storage in dough
    • How much dough rheology can we explain?

    14. The role of water in dough formation and bread quality


    • Dough as a disperse system
    • Water displacements and time dependent properties of the dough

    15. Foam formation in dough and bread quality


    • Principles of foam formation and stability
    • Surface active dough components
    • The role of the aqueous phase of dough
    • Analytical techniques

    16. Controlling bread dough development


    • Dough rheology during mixing
    • Dough development
    • Oxidising and reducing agents
    • The effects of mixer type
    • Radical bread process
    • Controlling dough development
    • Emerging methods for controlling dough development

    17. Molecular mobility in dough and bread quality


    • Molecular mobility in dough
    • Dough properties in baking
    • Controlling molecular mobility to improve bread quality

    18. The use of redox agents in breadmaking


    • The redox state in flour
    • Redox reactions during processing
    • Redox agents: oxidants and reductants

    19. Applications of enzymes in breadmaking


    • The nature of enzymes
    • Commercial production of enzymes
    • Genetically modified organism (GMO)
    • Applications in breadmaking
    • Baking examples

    20. Water control in breadmaking


    • Water composition and properties
    • Dough formation
    • Proving and baking
    • Water activity after baking

    Part 3: Bread Sensory Quality, Shelf Life and Safety

    21. Bread aroma


    • Formation of volatile compounds during breadmaking
    • Extraction and analysis of bread volatile compounds
    • Volatile composition of bread
    • How can bread aroma be improved?

    22. Applications of texture analysis to dough and bread


    • Principles and types of instrumental analysis as applied to dough
    • Principles and types of instrumental analysis as applied to bread

    23. Bread staling


    • Bread crumb structure
    • Bread stability
    • Anti-staling agents

    24. Mould prevention in bread


    • Current techniques for mould control and their limitations
    • Development of new methods for mould control

    25. Mycotoxin contamination of wheat, flour and bread


    • Some additional persistent problems of mycotoxins in the food chain
    • Parent mycotoxins in cereals occurring in bread and bakery products
    • Legislation
    • Development in analysis techniques
    • Development of non-invasive and rapid (screening) techniques

    Part 4: Particular bread Products

    26. Improving the quality of bread made from partially baked, refrigerated and frozen dough


    • Frozen part baked technology
    • Non-fermented frozen dough technology
    • Pre-fermented frozen dough technology
    • Energy demand for the bake off technologies

    27. Nutritionally enhanced wheat flours and breads


    • Nutritional value of wheat
    • Effect of processing on the nutritrional value of wheat
    • Different approaches to increase the nutritional value of wheat flour
    • Nutritional improvement of wheat flours during breadmaking performance
    • Ingredients for enriching wheat baked goods

    28. Formulating breads for specific dietary requirements


    • Wheat allergy and coeliac disease
    • Glycemic index and glycemic load
    • Bread high in dietary fibre

    29. Improving the quality of high-fibre breads


    • Sources of fibre
    • Challenges in high-fibre baking
    • Improving the quality of fibre enriched foods

    30. Quality of breads made with non-wheat flours


    • Non-wheat pan breads
    • Traditional non-wheat bread products
    • Quality issues


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